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Pass Laboratories

Aleph 4 Service Manual
Rev 0 8/18/1997

Aleph 4 Service Manual.

The Aleph 4 is a stereo 100 watt audio power amplifier which operates in single-ended
class A mode.

The Aleph 4 has only two gain stages which are biased by current sources. Because of
the inherent simplicity of the circuit, it is easy to understand and repair. There are no

Figure 1 shows the simplified schematic of the amplifier. Two p channel Mosfets form
an input differential pair biased by a current source operating at about 20 ma. The
drain of the input Mosfet is attached to the gate of an n channel power Mosfet which
forms the active output stage. It is biased by a current source at slightly greater than 3

The voltage rails of the supply are at 48 volts, and each channel draws approximately
250 watts.

Fig. 2 and 3 show the actual schematic for the amplifier.

F1 is a slow blow fuse, set at 8 amps for 100-120 volt operation, and 4 amps for 220-
240 volt operation.

S1 is the power switch, which has two sets of 25 amp contacts wired in parallel.

T1 is a thermostatic switch rated at 75 degrees Centigrade. It is mounted to the rear
heat sink.

TH2 is a power thermistor used to connect the circuit and chassis ground to the AC
outlet ground. It will normally operate at 5 ohms, suppressing ground loops in the
system, but will drop to a low impedance if significant current is passed through it.

TH1 and TH3 are power thermistors (Keystone CL-60) which are used to suppress
inrush current.

The power transformer drives a high current bridge and 100,000 uF of capacitance to
form a plus and minus 48 volt supply.
Referring to the channel itself, Q1A1 and Q1A2 form the differential input pair of
Mosfets. They are biased by the current source formed by Q1A5. Q1A5 is biased to
about 20 ma by the reference Zener diode Z9 which sets about 5 volts across R11.

Z1, 2, 7 and 8 protect the input from static spikes. R5, R14-18 and R53 form the input
networks and feedback loops.

The output of the differential input pair drives the gates of output devices Q18-29.
These parallel devices are matched gate to source voltages as close as .01 volts,
however variations as high as .1 volts will not impede operation.

The voltage across R24 shows the drive voltage for the output stage, and it should
have 4-5 volts across it.

The output of the amplifier is taken from the drains of Q18-20. Q18-20 are provided a
bias current by the current source circuitry of Q6-8, also a matched set of n channel

Q6-8 are set at 3 amps DC by the network consisting of Q3 and the components
surrounding it. Q3 is biased by R25 and R27 in series. A capacitor C8 is used to
reduce supply noise. R28 serves to sense the current running through Q6, and feeds
that to the base of Q3, forming a loop that holds the output current at 3 amps. The pn
junction drop of Q3 forms the reference voltage for the system.

R26 is a fixed resistor which trims the DC current value. R29 and C9 adjust the current
against output current as sensed by the voltage across R42-46 and R52.

Fig. 4 and 5 show the component layout of the central circuit board. This board holds
the power supply components, the front end circuitry, and connects the power stages

On this diagram you can see the wiring arrangements for the various AC line voltages:
100-120, and 220-240 volts.

There are no adjustments to the amplifier. Values for biasing various components are
taken from physical constants, such as pn junctions and zener voltages, and through
matching of Mosfet transistors.

The input Mosfets are match Vgs to within .01 volts, and the output Mosfets are in
matched pairs within .1 volt, although production tolerance is typically .01 volt.

For a 120 volts AC line, the amplifier will draw about 4 amps RMS. If you measure
current draw with an averaging meter, you will get a smaller number.

The amplifier is designed so that the heat sinks will operate approximately 30 degrees
C. above ambient, for a typical temperature of 55 degrees C. Temperature protection
occurs at 75 degrees C.
The amplifier will not be damaged by driving a short circuit, and it is probable that the
only failures you will see will be random component failure.

Gain 20 dB balanced

Freq. Response - 3 dB at 0.3 Hz, -3 dB at 100 KHz

Power Output 100 watts/ch 8 ohms

Distortion (1KHz) <1%THD

Output Impedance 0.1ohm

Input Impedance 10 Kohm unbalanced

25 Kohm differential

Input CMRR > -50 dB Typical

Power Consumption 500 watts

Dimensions 16 " W x 16" D x 10.5" H

Shipping Weight 105 lb.

Pass Laboratories
PO Box 219
24449 Foresthill Rd.
Foresthill CA 95631

tel (916) 367 3690
fax (916) 367 2193
Pass Laboratories

Aleph 4 Owner's Manual

Serial #
Dear Customer,

The Aleph 4 is the fifth of the newest generation of amplifiers from Pass Labs. This design results
from my commitment to create the best sounding product, a simple circuit having the most natural
characteristic. The Aleph 4 integrates power Mosfet devices and pure single ended Class A
operation in a simple two-gain-stage topology with the sole purpose of recreating subjectively
natural sound.

The Aleph 4 is unique in a number of ways:

Most amplifiers on the market have between five and seven gain stages in series between the
input and the output. The Aleph 4 has but two, and enjoys a very direct path from input to output,
further enhancing the purity of the circuit and the resulting sound. Early Aleph amplifiers have
three gain stages.

The output stage of the Aleph 4 is a unique blend of traditional design and innovation addressing
the unique requirements of loudspeakers. Previous methods of loading the output stage have
used networks consisting of resistors, coils, transformers, and active current sources, all of which
offer an optimal load line based on a resistive load. The Aleph 4 has a patented current source
topology which improves the efficiency and fidelity of the single-ended topology.

The Aleph 4 is unique in that there are no adjustments of any kind in the circuitry. There are no
potentiometers to adjust. The operating parameters of bias currents and DC offset and so on are
defined by physical constants, and will not go out of adjustment.

Most important, the Aleph 4 brings a new dimension to the recreation of subjective sonic reality.
The amplifier delivers detail and subjective space rarely found in semiconductor circuits, coupled
with the authority and clarity rarely found in tube amplifiers.

Thank you for purchasing this amplifier. I have personally performed the tests on it, and guarantee
that it meets our production standards. Accompanying are the distortion curves for this particular

This amplifier is different. I have considerable confidence that you will like it, but as the
performance is subjective, you be the judge.


Nelson Pass

The amplifier's voltage and current rating are indicated on the bottom. It will be either 240 volts,
120 volts, or 100 volts. The frequency rating of the AC line source is 50 to 60 Hz.

Your amplifier is provided with a standard AC power cord which fits into the line receptacle
located just below the power switch. The amplifier is equipped for operation with an earth ground
provided by the AC outlet. Do not defeat this ground. The chassis of the amplifier is connected
directly to this earth ground, and the audio circuit ground is connected to the chassis and earth
through a power thermistor, which gives a ground safety connection but helps avoid ground loops.
While the amplifier is equipped with an AC inrush suppresser, the turn-on AC draw will peak (half
cycle) at roughly 50 amps on a 120 volt system.

The input to each of the two amplifier channels occurs through a balanced XLR or standard RCA
unbalanced connector. The input impedance of the amplifier is 10 K ohms unbalanced, and 25
Kohms balanced differential. The top set is the left channel, the bottom set is the right.
The amplifier is shipped with ground connection jumpers between pins 1 and 3 of each of the
input XLR connectors. Leave these jumpers in place if you are using the RCA input connectors.
Rmove these jumpers if you are using the XLR balanced inputs. Operation is possible into the
RCA connectors with the jumpers removed, but the gain will be only 20 dB.

Connect the 5-way output connectors to loudspeaker plus and ground, using the cable of your
choice. Use some care to insure that the hot output connection does not short to the chassis or
other connectors. The top connector is the left channel, and the bottom is the right.

The amplifier draws 500 watts from the wall at all times, and during idle operation nearly all of this
energy will appear as heat on the heat sinks. Good ventilation is vital to the proper operation of
the amplifier. It has been adjusted for optimal performance at room temperature, but will work well
between 50 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 33 Celsius). You should leave at least six inches
clearance on the sides and top. The amplifier should not be placed in a closed cabinet which
does not have forced air ventilation.

This amplifier runs hot. The heat sinks will warm up in about an hour to a temperature which will
not be comfortable to touch for more than a moment or two, which is 120 to 130 degrees
Fahrenheit (50 to 55 degrees Celsius). This is normal, and there is a thermal shut off system
which will shut down the amplifier at internal temperatures in excess of 160 deg. F. and 70 deg. C.

It takes at least an hour of warm up time to get the best performance out of the amplifier. It will
take that long to reach operating temperature and exhibit lowest distortion and noise. This is not a
subjective judgement, but based on actual distortion and noise measurements. You may find
somewhat greater residual noise coming through the loudspeaker when the amplifier is first turned
on, but it will decrease as the amplifier warms up.

The amplifier does not require any maintenance. While the design is conservative, this is a hard
running amplifier, as single ended Class A operation is the least efficient operating mode. In
fifteen years the electrolytic power supply capacitors will get old. Depending on usage, you will
begin to have semiconductor and other failures between 10 and 50 years after date of
manufacture. Later, the sun will cool to a white dwarf, and after that the universe will experience
heat death.
Product Philosophy and Design Theory
When I started designing amplifiers 25 years ago, solid state amplifiers had just achieved a firm
grasp on the market. Power and harmonic distortion numbers were king, and the largest audio
magazine said that amplifiers with the same specs sounded the same.

We have heard Triodes, Pentodes, Bipolar, VFET, Mosfet, TFET valves, IGBT, Hybrids, THD
distortion, IM distortion, TIM distortion, phase distortion, quantization, feedback, nested
feedback, no feedback, feed forward, Stasis, harmonic time alignment, high slew, Class AB,
Class A, Pure Class A, Class AA, Class A/AB, Class D, Class H, Constant bias, dynamic bias,
optical bias, Real Life Bias, Sustained Plateau Bias, big supplies, smart supplies, regulated
supplies, separate supplies, switching supplies, dynamic headroom, high current, balanced
inputs and balanced outputs.

Apart from digitally recorded source material, things have not changed very much in twenty five
years. Solid state amplifiers still dominate the market, the largest audio magazine still doesn't
hear the difference, and many audiophiles are still hanging on to their tubes. Leaving aside the
examples of marketing hype, we have a large number of attempts to improve the sound of
amplifiers, each attempting to address a hypothesized flaw in the performance. Audiophiles have
voted on the various designs with their pocketbooks, and products go down in history as classics
or are forgotten. The used market speaks eloquently: Marantz 9's command a high price, while
Dyna 120's are largely unwanted.

There has been a failure in the attempt to use specifications to characterize the subtleties of sonic
performance. Amplifiers with similar measurements are not equal, and products with higher
power, wider bandwidth, and lower distortion do not necessarily sound better. Historically, that
amplifier offering the most power, or the lowest IM distortion, or the lowest THD, or the highest
slew rate, or the lowest noise, has not become a classic or even been more than a modest

For a long time there has been faith in the technical community that eventually some objective
analysis would reconcile critical listener's subjective experience with laboratory measurement.
Perhaps this will occur, but in the meantime, audiophiles largely reject bench specifications as an
indicator of audio quality. This is appropriate. Appreciation of audio is a completely subjective
human experience. We should no more let numbers define audio quality than we would let
chemical analysis be the arbiter of fine wines. Measurements can provide a measure of insight,
but are no substitute for human judgment.

As in art, classic audio components are the results of individual efforts and reflect a coherent
underlying philosophy. They make a subjective and an objective statement of quality which is
meant to be appreciated. It is essential that the circuitry of an audio component reflects a
philosophy which address the subjective nature of its performance first and foremost.

Lacking an ability to completely characterize performance in an objective manner, we should take
a step back from the resulting waveform and take into account the process by which it has been
achieved. The history of what has been done to the music is important and must be considered a
part of the result. Everything that has been done to the signal is embedded in it, however subtly.

Experience correlating what sounds good to knowledge of component design yields some
general guidelines as to what will sound good and what will not:
1) Simplicity and a minimum number of components is a key element, and is well reflected in the
quality of tube designs. The fewer pieces in series with the signal path, the better. This often true
even if adding just one more gain stage will improve the measured specs.

2) The characteristic of gain devices and their specific use is important. Individual variations in
performance between like devices is important, as are differences in topological usage. All signal
bearing devices contribute to the degradation, but there are some different characteristics are
worth attention. Low order nonlinearities are largely additive in quality, bringing false warmth and
coloration, while abrupt high order nonlinearities are additive and subtractive, adding harshness
while losing information.

3) Maximum intrinsic linearity is desired. This is the performance of the gain stages before
feedback is applied. Experience suggests that feedback is a subtractive process; it removes
information from the signal. In many older designs, poor intrinsic linearity has been corrected out
by large application of feedback, resulting in loss of warmth, space, and detail.

High idle current, or bias, is very desirable as a means of maximizing linearity, and gives an effect
which is not only easily measured, but easily demonstrated: Take a Class A or other high bias
amplifier and compare the sound with full bias and with bias reduced. (Bias adjustment is easily
accomplished, as virtually every amplifier has a bias adjustment pot, but it should be done very
carefully). As an experiment it has the virtue of only changing the bias and the expectations of the

As the bias is reduced the perception of stage depth and ambiance will generally decrease. This
perception of depth is influenced by the raw quantity of bias current. If you continue to increase the
bias current far beyond the operating point, it appears that improvements are made with bias
currents which are much greater than the signal level. Typically the levels involved in most critical
listening are only a few watts, but an amplifier biased for ten times that amount will generally sound
better than one biased for the few watts.

For this reason, designs which operate in what has been referred to as "pure" Class A are
preferred because their bias currents are much larger than the signal most of the time. As
mentioned, preamp gain stages and the front ends of power amplifiers are routinely single ended
"pure" Class A, and because the signal levels are at small fractions of a watt, the efficiency of the
circuit is not important.

4) Given the assumption that every process that we perform on the signal will be heard, the finest
amplifiers must employ those processes which are most natural. There is one element in the
chain which we cannot alter or improve upon, and that is the air. Air defines sound, and serves as
a natural benchmark.

Virtually all the amplifiers on the market are based on a push-pull symmetry model. The push-pull
symmetry topology has no particular basis in nature. Is it valid to use air's characteristic as a
model for designing an amplifier? If you accept that all processing leaves its signature on the
music, the answer is perhaps yes.

One of the most interesting characteristics of air is its single ended nature. Sound traveling
through air is the result of the gas equation

PV1.4 = 1.26 X 104
where P is pressure and V is volume, and whose curve is illustrated in fig. 1. The small
nonlinearity which is the result of air's characteristic is not generally judged to be significant at
normal sound levels, and is comparable to the distortion numbers of fine amplifiers. This
distortion generally only becomes a concern in the throats of horns, where the intense pressure
levels are many times those at the mouth, and where the harmonic component can reach several
per cent.






1.4 1.2 1.0 .8 .6

(M /Kg)


Fig. 1 shows the single ended nature of air. We can push on it and raise the pressure an arbitrary
amount, but we cannot pull on it. We can only let it relax and fill a space as it will; the pressure will
never go below "0". As we push on air, the increase in pressure is greater than the corresponding
decrease when we allow air to expand. This means that for a given motion of a diaphragm acting
on air, the positive pressure perturbations will be slightly greater than the negative. From this we
see that air is phase sensitive.

As a result of its single ended nature, the harmonic content of air is primarily 2nd order, that is to
say most of the distortion of a single tone is second harmonic. The phase of this distortion reflects
the higher positive pressure over the negative.

Air's transfer curve also shows also that it is monotonic, which is to say its distortion products
decrease smoothly as the acoustic level decreases. This is an important element that has often
been overlooked in audio design and is reflected in the poor quality of early solid state amplifiers
and D/A and A/D converters. They are not monotonic: the distortion increases as the level

The usual electrical picture of an audio signal is as an AC waveform, without a DC component.
Audio is represented as alternating voltage and current, where positive voltage and current
alternates with negative in a reciprocal and symmetric fashion. This fiction is convenient because
it lends itself to the use of an energy efficient design for amplifier power stages known as push-
pull, where a "plus" side of an amplifier alternates operation with a "minus" side. Each side of a
push-pull amplifier handles the audio signal alternately; the "plus" side supplying positive voltage
and current to the loudspeaker, and the "minus" side supplying negative voltage and current.
Problems with push-pull amplifier designs associated with crossover distortion have been
discussed elsewhere at length, and one of the primary results is non-monotonicity. Class B and
many AB designs have distortion products that dramatically increase with decreasing signal.
This is reduced greatly by Class A mode, but crossover distortion remains as a lower order
discontinuity in the transfer curve.

For reproducing music as naturally as possible, push-pull symmetric operation is not the best
approach. Air is not symmetric and does not have a push-pull characteristic. Sound in air is a
perturbation around a positive pressure point. There is only positive pressure, more positive
pressure, and less positive pressure.

Push-pull circuits give rise to odd ordered harmonics, where the phase alignment reflects
compression at both positive and negative peaks and crossover nonlinearity near the zero point.

Push-pull operation in amplifiers is commonly portrayed by the analogy of a two-man saw cutting
down a tree. Certainly if we are cutting down trees by hand, we would opt for this method, as it
would be much more efficient.

As we are not cutting down trees, I much prefer the image of a violinist holding the bow at one end
with one hand. Only in this manner does the musician gain the degree of control and precision
required to produce the range and subtlety required by music. And so it is with single-ended

Only one linear circuit topology delivers the appropriate characteristic, and that is the single ended
amplifier. Single ended amplification only comes in pure Class A, and is the least efficient form of
power stage you can reasonably create, typically idling at three to five times the rated output

Single ended operation is not new. It is routinely found in the low level circuitry of the finest
preamplifying stages and in the front end circuits of the finest power amplifiers. The first tube
power amplifiers were single ended circuits using a single tube driving the primary of a

In 1977 I designed and published in Audio Magazine a single ended Class A amplifier using
bipolar followers biased by a constant current source. A considerable number of amateurs have
built the device, rated at 20 watts output, and many have commented on its unique sonic

Single ended Class A operation is generally less efficient than push-pull Class A. Single ended
Class A amplifiers tend to be even bigger and more expensive than their push-pull cousins, but
they have a more natural transfer curve.

The "purity" of Class A designs has been at issue in the last few years, with "pure" Class A loosely
defined as an idling heat dissipation of more than twice the maximum amplifier output. For a 100
watt amplifier, this would be 200 watts out of the wall at idle.

As the Aleph 4 idles at two and a half times its rated output, I think we can safely think of it as
Designs that vary the bias against the musical signal will generally have bias currents at or below
the signal level. This is certainly an improvement from the viewpoint of energy efficiency, but the
sound reflects the lesser bias point.

I authored the first patent on the dynamically biased Class A amplifier in 1974, however I have not
used the technique for the last 15 years. The reason is that I found the quality of sound associated
with an efficient Class A operating mode inferior in depth and less liquid at high frequencies,
simply because it operates at reduced bias at low levels. Given the plethora of cool running
"Class A" amplifiers on the market, you might say I opened a Pandora's box.

A very important consideration in attempting to create an amplifier with a natural characteristic is
the selection of the gain devices. A single ended Class A topology is appropriate, and we want a
characteristic where the positive amplitude is very, very slightly greater than the negative. For a
current gain device, that would mean gain that smoothly increases with current, and for a tube or
field effect device a transconductance that smoothly increases with current.

Triodes and Mosfets share a useful characteristic: their transconductance tends to increase with
current. Bipolar power devices have a slight gain increase until they hit about an amp or so, and
then they decline at higher currents. In general the use of bipolar in a single ended Class A circuit
is a poor fit.

Another performance advantage shared by Tubes and Fets is the high performance they deliver in
simple Class A circuits. Bipolar designs on the market have between five and seven gain stages
associated with the signal path, but with tubes and Mosfets good objective specifications are
achievable with only 2 or 3 gain devices in the signal path.

Readers of The Audio Amateur Magazine will be familiar with my "Zen" design, which uses a
Mosfet in a power amplifier which has only one gain stage, and only one gain transistor.
Research continues at Pass Labs in improving the performance of very simple gain circuits.

Yet a third advantage tubes and Mosfets have over bipolar devices is their greater reliability at
higher temperatures. As noted, single ended power amplifiers dissipate comparatively high
wattages and run hot. Bipolar devices are much more prone to failure at high temperatures.

In a decision between Triodes and Mosfets, the Mosfet's advantage is in naturally operating at the
voltages and currents we want to deliver to a loudspeaker. Efforts to create a direct coupled
single ended triode power amplifier have been severely limited by the high voltages and low plate
currents that are the province of tubes. The commercial offerings have not exceeded 8 watts or
so, in spite of hundreds of dissipated watts.

Transformer coupled single ended triode amplifiers are the alternative, using very large gapped-
core transformers to avoid core saturation from the high DC current, but they suffer the
characteristic of such a loosely coupled transformer as well.

The promise of the transconductance characteristic in power amplifiers in providing the most
realistic amplified representation of music is best fulfilled in Mosfet single ended Class A circuitry
where it can be used very simply and biased very high.

The Aleph 4 uses Mosfets exclusively for all gain stages. These Mosfets were chosen because
they have the most ideal transfer curve for an asymmetric Class A design. Made in the United
States, they have the highest quality of power Mosfets we have tested to date. We match the input
devices to each other to within 0.2% and the output devices to within 2%. The smallest of these,
the input devices, are capable of peak currents of 5 amps. The largest are capable of peaks of
50 amps each, and are run in parallel groups of three.

The power Mosfets in the Aleph 4 have chip temperatures ratings to 150 degrees Centigrade,
and we operate them at small fractions, typically 20% of their ratings. For extended life, we do not
allow chip temperatures to exceed 85 degrees C.

Regardless of the type of gain device, in systems where the utmost in natural reproduction is the
goal, simple single ended Class A circuits are the topologies of choice.

It is a very simple topology, which is a key part of the sound quality. Other solid state amplifier
designs have five to seven gain stages in the signal path in order to get enough gain to use
feedback to provide adequate performance. In this amplifier, we get greater linearity by providing
much more bias through two gain stages: a differential input stage, and the output transistors.

Mosfets provide the widest bandwidth of solid state power devices, however they were not chosen
for this reason. The design of the Aleph 4 does not seek to maximize the amplifier bandwidth as
such. The capacitances of the Mosfets provide a natural rolloff in conjunction with the resistive
impedances found in the circuit, and the simplicity of the circuit allows for what is largely a single
pole rolloff characteristic.

For the lowest possible operating noise in any environment, the amplifier is equipped with
balanced inputs featuring a common mode noise rejection of greater than 60 dB. Balanced
operation is accomplished through a passive network tied directly into the input stage of the
amplifier, not with additional active input circuitry as in other products. This assures that the noise
benefits of balanced operation are not accompanied by the degradation of more semiconductors
in the gain path.
The input of the amplifier is flexible and can also be operated with unbalanced sources. The input
system will exhibit full common mode noise rejection with passive balanced sources, where the
negative input is connected to ground at the source through the appropriate source impedance.
This allows adaptation of unbalanced sources to balanced operation with passive cable
connections in a manner that achieves the noise rejection of active balanced sources. Pin 1 of the
XLR input connector is ground, pin 2 is the positive input, and pin 3 is the negative input.

The Aleph 4 is shipped with a shorting plug between pins 1 and 3 of the input XLR connectors.
This shorting plug sets the gain of the amplifier to 26 dB when you are using the RCA unbalanced
input. Removal of this plug will set the gain to 20 dB. Needless to say, you will remove this plug
when using the balanced input. There is no penalty for not using this plug with unbalanced
operation, and if you have particularly efficient loudspeakers, you may find that you prefer it this

The slew rate of the amplifier is about 30 Volts/uS under load , which is about 30 times faster than
the fastest signal you will ever see, and about 100 times faster than what you will be listening to. In
and of itself, the slew rate is an unimportant factor when evaluating tube and simple Mosfet
designs. It becomes more important with complex circuit topologies where there is heavy
dependence on feedback correction, but even then its importance has been overstated.

The amplifier is powered by a toroidal transformer which charges .1 Farad capacitance. This
unregulated supply feeds the output transistors only with a full power ripple of about .7 volt. The
power draw of this system is constant regardless of the music playing through the amplifier. As
such, it does not depend on a high quality AC outlet or special power cords, since the dynamic
performance does not create a variation in AC line draw. If the AC line is running low, the output
stage will bias to a higher current level by way of compensation.

The amplifier is stable into any load impedance or reactance including a direct short, but does not
increase its power rating with reduced impedance. Below 4 ohms, the output of the amplifier will
be proportional to the load impedance.

The Aleph 4 is impervious to electrostatic shock at the input and dead shorts at the output. You
can safely plug and unplug inputs and outputs while the amplifier is running. (Do not try this with
other products).The Aleph 4 is protected from overheating by a 75 degree C. thermostatic switch,
and from internal failure by a slow-blow fuse.

The Aleph 4 is warranted by Pass Laboratories to meet performance specifications for 3 years
from date of manufacture. During that time, Pass Laboratories will provide free labor and parts at
the manufacturing site. The warranty does not include damage due to misuse or abuse or
modified products and also does not include consequential damage.


Gain 20 dB balanced, 20 or 26 dB balanced

Freq. Response - 0.5 dB at 2 Hz, -2 dB at 100 KHz
Power Output 100 watts/ch 8 ohms

Distortion (1KHz) 1% @ 100 watts/ch, 8 ohms

Input Impedance 10 Kohm unbalanced

25 Kohm balanced differential

Damping factor 80 nominal

Output Noise 600 uV unweighted

DC offset < 100 mv

Power Consumption 500 watts

Temperature 25 degrees C. above ambient

Dimensions 16.5 " W x 16.5" D x 10.5" H

Shipping Weight 110 lb.

Pass Laboratories
PO Box 219
24449 Foresthill Road
Foresthill CA 95631

tel (916) 367 3690
fax (916) 367 2193