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NUBIRA/LACETTI

WELDING AND TOOLS 31

SECTION 3

WELDING AND TOOLS
CONTENTS 1. SPOT WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
1.1.GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1.2.WELDING CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1.3.WELDING STRENGTH TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2. GAS WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 3. CARBON DIOXIDE ARC WELDER(MIG ARC WELDING) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 4. REPAIR TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6

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1. SPOT WELDING
11. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
. Spot welding is also known as resistance spot welding and it is the most suitable method of welding for automobiles. It has three main features: the welding can be performed instantaneously, it exercises very little effect on the mother material, and it reduces the generation of distortion to the absolute minimum. However, please remember to remove all paint and other impurities from the surface of the material you intend to weld for reliable results. .

12. WELDING CONDITIONS
. When performing spot welding, make absolutely sure that you conform to the conditions governed by the current, conductivity time, welding pressure, holding time, and shutdown time recommended for the spot welder. Please bear in mind the following points when welding : . S Plate thickness and minimum welding pitch Note : When the welding intervals are too small, this leads to branching, making it impossible to maintain the desired soldering state. Plate thickness Minimum intervals 0.6mm 11mm 0.9mm 16mm 1.2mm 20mm 1.6mm 24mm Fig. 2

Fig. 1 Welders

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S Plate thickness and tip diameter Plate thickness Minimum intervals 0.6mm 4.5 0.9mm 5.0 1.2mm 5.5 1.6mm 6.0

Even if you perform the welding in accordance with the conditions, the strength of the welded sections may fluctuate widely with drops in the voltage and other factors. The quality of the welding cannot be evaluated unless the welded sections are destroyed. . Provide yourself with a steel plate of the same thickness and conduct a destruction test. . S If holes appear in the steel plates, this means that the welding is standard strength. S Drive a wedge between two panels near the nugget. If the welded parts do not come apart and the diameter of the nugget appears more than 3 mm, the welding should be satisfactory.

Fig. 3

13. WELDING STRENGTH TEST
.

Fig. 4

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Note : It is difficult to perform spot welding in the following circumstances. S When it is not possible to remove any rust or paint attached to the welding surfaces. S When the tip of the spot welder cannot be inserted into the welding section. S When the welding surfaces can be seen from the outside and welding will impair the exterior appearance. . In all these cases, it is recommended that the gas welding method be employed. However, if it is not possible to perform spot welding because of space restrictions, plug welding based on the arc welding method may be performed instead. Here the welding sections must be close together.

2. GAS WELDING
. Gas welding is indispensable for body repair because of the broad range of its applications from joining the body panels, cutting the materials that construct the body and applying heat to reform panels, and also because it is easy to get hold of the tools. However, this method requires experience.

Fig. 5

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Note : Below is an example of how not to perform gas welding, avoid operations like this.

3. CARBON DIOXIDE ARC WELDER(MIG ARC WELDING)
This welding process uses inexpensive carbon dioxide instead of expensive inert gases as a shielding means. Consumable metal electrodes are employed. It has a wide range of applications, including butt welding of thin plate, fillet welding, plug welding, and MIG spot welding. In terms of the weld strength, it is also highly stable.

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

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4. REPAIR TOOLS
Item Protective tools Work Operator Tools. equipment used

Vehicle body

Processing tools

Plug hole drilling

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Item Fixing tools

Work Base metal fixing

Tools. equipment used

Shaping tools

Skin panel shaping

Body, frame shaping

Measuring tools

Measuring

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Item Flange tools

Work Edge preparation

Tools. equipment used

Cutting tools

.

Sanding tools

Cleaning