Text preview for : VW POLO 90-94 Repair handbook .pdf part of Volkswagen Polo 11/1990-08/1994 petrol Service and Repair Manual - Schematic Diagram - pag. 182



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Contents
LIVING WITH YOUR VW POLO
Introduction Safety first! Page 0.4 Page 0.5

Roadside repairs
Introduction If your car won't start Jump starting Wheel changing Identifying leaks Towing Page 0.6 Page 0.6 Page 0.7 Page 0.8 Page 0.9 Page 0.9

Weekly checks
Introduction Underbonnet check points Engine oil level Coolant level Brake fluid level Screen washer fluid level Wiper blades Battery Tyre condition and pressure Bulbs and fuses Page 0.10 Page 0.10 Page 0.11 Page 0.11 Page 0.12 Page 0.12 Page 0.13 Page 0.13 Page 0.14 Page 0.15

Lubricants, fluids and tyre pressures

Page 0.16

MAINTENANCE
Routine maintenance and servicing
Maintenance schedule Maintenance procedures Page 1.1 Page 1.3 Page 1.5

Contents
REPAIRS & OVERHAUL
Engine and associated systems
Petrol engine in-car repair procedures Engine removal and overhaul procedures Cooling, heating and ventilation systems Fuel/exhaust systems - single-point petrol injection models Fuel/exhaust systems - multi-point petrol injection models Exhaust and emission control systems Engine electrical - starting and charging systems Engine electrical - Ignition system Page 2A.1 Page 2B.1 Page 3.1 Page 4A.1 Page 4B.1 Page 4C.1 Page 5A.1 Page 5B.1

Transmission
Clutch Manual transmission Driveshafts Page 6.1 Page 7.1 Page 8.1

Brakes and suspension
Braking system Suspension and steering Page 9.1 Page 10.1

Body equipment
Bodywork and fittings Body electrical systems Page 11.1 Page 12.1

Wiring diagrams

Page 12.12

REFERENCE
Dimensions and weights Conversion factors Buying spare parts and vehicle identification General repair procedures Jacking and vehicle support MOT test checks Fault finding Glossary of technical terms Page REF.1 Page REF.2 Page REF.3 Page REF.4 Page REF.5 Page REF.5 Page REF.12 Page REF.19

Index

Page REF.24

0.4 Introduction
The updated VW Polo range was introduced in November of 1990, with a choice of 1.05 litre (1043 cc) or 1.3 litre (1272 cc) petrol engines, with either single-point or multi-point fuel injection. During Spring 1991, the G40 model was launched, equipped with a supercharged version of the 1.3 litre engine. Three body shells are available - a three-door hatchback, a two-door saloon and a threedoor Coupe. All engines are derived from the well-proven units which have appeared in previous versions of the VW Polo. The engine is of fourcylinder overhead camshaft design, mounted transversely, with the transmission mounted on the left-hand side. All models have a four or five-speed manual transmission. All models have fully-independent front suspension and employ coilover-damper struts, transverse lower arms and an anti-roll bar. The rear suspension is semi-independent, utilising coil-over-damper struts and incorporating trailing arms located by a torsion beam axle. A rear anti-roll bar is fitted to certain models. A wide range of standard and optional equipment is available within the Polo range to suit most tastes, including a sliding sunroof, tinted glass, alloy wheels and remote adjustable door mirrors. Provided that regular servicing is carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, the VW Polo should prove reliable and very economical. The engine compartment is well-designed, and most of the items requiring frequent attention are easily accessible.

Your Polo manual
The aim of this manual is to help you get the best value from your vehicle. It can do so in several ways. It can help you decide what work must be done (even if you choose to get it done by a garage). It will also provide information on routine maintenance and servicing, and give a logical course of action and diagnosis when random faults occur. However, it is hoped that you will use the manual by tackling the work yourself. On simpler jobs it may even be quicker than booking the car into a garage and going there twice, to leave and collect it. Perhaps most important, a lot of money can be saved by avoiding the costs a garage must charge to cover its labour and overheads. The manual has drawings and descriptions to show the function of the various components so that their layout can be understood. Tasks are described and photographed in a clear step-by-step sequence. This manual is not a direct reproduction of the vehicle manufacturer's data, and its publication should not be taken as implying any technical approval by the vehicle manufacturers or importers.

The WV Polo Team
Haynes manuals are produced by dedicated and enthusiastic people working in close co-operation. The team responsible for the creation of this book included:

Authors Sub-editor Editor & Page Make-up Workshop manager Photo Scans Cover illustration & Line Art Wiring diagrams

Andy Legg Spencer Drayton Carole Turk Bob Jex Pete Shoemark Paul Buckland John Martin Paul Tanswell Steve Tanswell Roger Healing Matthew Marke

Acknowledgements
Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plugs, who supplied the illustrations showing spark plug conditions. Special thanks to Loders of Yeovil who provided several of the project vehicles used in the origination of this manual. Thanks are also due to Sykes-Pickavant Limited, who provided some of the workshop tools, and to all those people at Sparkford and Newbury Park who helped in the production of this manual. We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

We hope the book will help you to get the maximum enjoyment from your car. By carrying out routine maintenance as described you will ensure your car's reliability and preserve its resale value.

VW Polo Boulevard

WV Polo GT Coupe

Safety first! 0.5
Working on your car can be dangerous. This page shows just some of the potential risks and hazards, with the aim of creating a safety-conscious attitude.
l Mains voltage is also dangerous. Make sure that any mains-operated equipment is correctly earthed. Mains power points should be protected by a residual current device (RCD) circuit breaker.

Special hazards
Hydrofluoric acid
l This extremely corrosive acid is formed when certain types of synthetic rubber, found in some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, are exposed to temperatures above 400C. The rubber changes into a charred or sticky substance containing the acid. Once formed, the acid remains dangerous for years. If it gets onto the skin, it may be necessary to amputate the limb concerned. l When dealing with a vehicle which has suffered a fire, or with components salvaged from such a vehicle, wear protective gloves and discard them after use.

General hazards
Scalding
Don't remove the radiator or expansion tank cap while the engine is hot. . Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid or power steering fluid may also be dangerously hot if the engine has recently been running.
l

Fume or gas intoxication
Exhaust fumes are poisonous; they often contain carbon monoxide, which is rapidly fatal if inhaled. Never run the engine in a confined space such as a garage with the doors shut. l Fuel vapour is also poisonous, as are the vapours from some cleaning solvents and paint thinners.
l

Burning
Beware of burns from the exhaust system and from any part of the engine. Brake discs and drums can also be extremely hot immediately after use.
l

The battery
l Batteries contain sulphuric acid, which attacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take care when topping-up or carrying the battery. l The hydrogen gas given off by the battery is highly explosive. Never cause a spark or allow a naked light nearby. Be careful when connecting and disconnecting battery chargers or jump leads.

Crushing
l When working under or near a raised vehicle,

Poisonous or irritant substances
Avoid skin contact with battery acid and with any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especially antifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Diesel fuel. Don't syphon them by mouth. If such a substance is swallowed or gets into the eyes, seek medical advice. l Prolonged contact with used engine oil can cause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use a barrier cream if necessary. Change out of oilsoaked clothes and do not keep oily rags in your pocket. l Air conditioning refrigerant forms a poisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame (including a cigarette). It can also cause skin burns on contact.
l

Air bags
l Air bags can cause injury if they go off accidentally. Take care when removing the steering wheel and/or facia. Special storage instructions may apply.

venture under a car which is only supported by a jack. l Take care if loosening or tightening hightorque nuts when the vehicle is on stands. Initial loosening and final tightening should be done with the wheels on the ground.

Diesel injection equipment
Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at very high pressure. Take care when working on the fuel injectors and fuel pipes.
l

Fire
Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour is explosive. l Don't let fuel spill onto a hot engine. l Do not smoke or allow naked lights (including pilot lights) anywhere near a vehicle being worked on. Also beware of creating sparks (electrically or by use of tools). . Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so don't work on the fuel system with the vehicle over an inspection pit. l Another cause of fire is an electrical overload or short-circuit. Take care when repairing or modifying the vehicle wiring. l Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a type suitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.
l

Asbestos
l Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaled or swallowed. Asbestos may be found in gaskets and in brake and clutch linings. When dealing with such components it is safest to assume that they contain asbestos.

Warning: Never expose the hands, face or any other part of the body ! to injector spray; the fuel can penetrate the skin with potential/y fatal results.

A

Electric shock
Ignition HT voltage can be dangerous, especially to people with heart problems or a pacemaker. Don't work on or near the ignition system with the engine running or the ignition switched on.
l

0.6 Roadside repairs
The following pages are intended to help in dealing with common roadside emergencies and breakdowns. You will find more detailed fault finding information at the back of the manual, and repair information in the main chapters.

If your car won't start and the starter motor doesn't turn
0 Open the bonnet and make sure that the battery terminals are clean and tight. 0 Switch on the headlights and try to start the engine. If the headlights go very dim when you're trying to start, the battery is probably flat. Get out of trouble by jump starting (see next page) using a friend's car.

If your car won't start even though the starter motor turns as normal
0 Is there fuel in the tank? 0 Is there moisture on electrical components under the bonnet? Switch off the ignition, then wipe off any obvious dampness with a dry cloth. Spray a water-repellent aerosol product (WD-40 or equivalent) on ignition and fuel system electrical connectors like those shown in the photos. Pay special attention to the ignition coil wiring connector and H-T leads.

A

Check that the spark plug HT leads are securely connected by pushing them down onto the plug tops

B

Check that the distributor hall sender connector is firmly pushed home and

C

At the ignition coil, check that the LT and HT cable connections are secure and free of moisture

With the ignition switched off, check that electrical connections are secure and spray them with a water dispersant spray, such as WD40, if you suspect that moisture may be causing a problem.

E

Check that the airflow meter harness connector is secure and free of moisture

Roadside repairs 0.7
Jump starting
When jump-starting a car using a booster battery, observe the following precautions: 1 Before connecting the booster battery, make sure that the ignition is switched off. 2 Ensure that all electrical equipment (lights, heater, wipers, etc) is switched off. 3 Make sure that the booster battery is the same voltage as the discharged one in the vehicle. If the battery is being jump-started from the battery in another vehicle, the two vehicles MUST NOT TOUCH each other. 4

5/ Make sure that the transmission is in neutral (or PARK, in the case of automatic transmission).

0.8 Roadside repairs
Wheel changing
Some of the details shown here will vary according to model. For instance, the location of the spare wheel and jack is not the same on all cars. However, the basic principles apply to all vehicles.

A
! 0l 0

Warning: Do not change a wheel in a situation where you risk being hit by other traffic. On busy roads, try to stop in a lay-by or a gateway.Be wary of passing traffic while changing the wheel - it is easy to become distracted by the job in hand.

Preparation
0 When a puncture occurs, stop as soon as it is safe to do so. 0 Park on firm level ground, if possible, and well out of the way of other traffic. q Use hazard warning lights if necessary. If you have one, use a warning triangle to alert other drivers of your presence. Apply the handbrake and engage first or reverse gear (or Park on models with automatic transmission. 0 Chock the wheel diagonally opposite the one being removed - a couple of large stones will do for this. If the ground is soft, use a flat piece of wood to spread the load under the jack.

0

Changing the wheel

1

The spare wheel and tools are stored in the luggage compartment. Unscrew the wing nut and lift out the spare wheel

2

The jack is located beneath the spare wheel. The wheel brace is on the righthand side of the luggage compartment

3

Remove the wheel trim . . .

4 ...

then slacken each wheel bolt by a half turn

Locate the jack below the reinforced point on the sill (don't jack the vehicle at any other point of the sill) and on firm ground then turn the jack handle clockwise until the wheel is raised clear of the ground

5

Unscrew the wheel bolts and remove the wheel. Fit the spare wheel, and screw in the bolts. Lightly tighten the bolts with the brace, and lower the vehicle to the ground.

6

Finally...
0 0 0 Remove the wheel chocks. Stow the jack and tools in the correct locations in the car. Check the tyre pressure on the wheel just fitted. If it is low, or if you don't have a pressure gauge with you, drive slowly to the nearest garage and inflate the tyre to the right pressure. Have the damaged tyre or wheel repaired as soon as possible.

7

Securely tighten the wheel bolts in the sequence shown, Refit the wheel trim, and stow the punctured wheel and tools.

8

The wheel bolts should be slackened and retightened to the specified torque at the earliest possible opportunity

0

Roadside repairs 0.9
Identifying leaks
Puddles on the garage floor or drive, or obvious wetness under the bonnet or underneath the car, suggest a leak that needs investigating. It can sometimes be difficult to decide where the leak is coming from, especially if the engine bay is very dirty already. Leaking oil or fluid can also be blown rearwards by the passage of air under the car, giving a false impression of where the problem lies.

A
!

Warning: Most automotive oils and fluids are poisonous. Wash them off skin, and change out of contaminated clothing, without delay.

Sump oil

Gearbox oil

Engine oil may leak from the drain plug...

. ..or from the base of the oil filter.

Gearbox oil can leak from the seals at the inboard ends of the driveshafts.

Antifreeze

Brake fluid

Power steering fluid

Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystalline deposit like this.

A leak occurring at a wheel is almost certainly brake fluid.

Power steering fluid may leak from the pipe connectors on the steering rack.

Towing
When all else fails, you may find yourself having to get a tow home - or of course you may be helping somebody else. Long-distance recovery should only be done by a garage or breakdown service. For shorter distances, DIY towing using another car is easy enough, but observe the following points: q Use a proper tow-rope - they are not expensive. The vehicle being towed must display an `ON TOW' sign in its rear window. q Always turn the ignition key to the `on' position when the vehicle is being towed, so that the steering lock is released, and that the direction indicator and brake lights will work. 0 Only attach the tow-rope to the towing eyes provided. 0 Before being towed, release the handbrake and select neutral on the transmission. 0 Note that greater-than-usual pedal pressure will be required to operate the brakes, since the vacuum servo unit is only operational with the engine running. 0 On models with power steering, greaterthan-usual steering effort will also be required. 0 The driver of the car being towed must keep the tow-rope taut at all times to avoid snatching. 0 Make sure that both drivers know the route before setting off. q Only drive at moderate speeds and keep the distance towed to a minimum. Drive smoothly and allow plenty of time for slowing down at junctions. q The front towing eye is supplied as part 01 the tool kit stored in the luggage compartment. To fit the eye, carefully prise out the removable panel from the front bumper. Securely screw the eye into position, (noting that on some models it may have a left-handed thread) and tighten using the wheelbrace handle (see illustration).

The front towing eye is supplied as part of the vehicle tool kit and must be screwed into position

0.10 Weekly checks

Introduction
There are some very simple checks which need only take a few minutes to carry out, but which could save you a lot of inconvenience and expense. These "Weekly checks" require no great skill or special tools, and the small amount of time they take to perform could prove to be very well spent, for example; Keeping an eye on tyre condition and pressures, will not only help to stop them wearing out prematurely, but could also save your life. 0 Many breakdowns are caused by electrical problems. Battery-related faults are particularly common, and a quick check on a regular basis will often prevent the majority of these.

q

q If your car develops a brake fluid leak, the first time you might know about it is when your brakes don't work properly. Checking the level regularly will give advance warning of this kind of problem.
0 If the oil or coolant levels run low, the cost of repairing any engine damage will be far greater than fixing the leak, for example.

Underbonnet check points
1 1.3 litre model
A Engine oil level dipstick B Engine oil filler cap C Coolant expansion tank D Brake fluid reservoir E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery

Weekly checks 0.11
Engine oil level
Before you start
V Make sure that your car is on level ground. V Check the oil level before the car is driven, or at least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off.

The dipstick top is often brightly coloured for easy identification (see "Underbonnet check points" on page 0.10 for exact location). Withdraw the dipstick from its tube.

1

The correct oil
Modern engines place great demands on their oil. It is very important that the correct oil for your car is used (See "Lubricants, fluids and tyre pressures").

Using a clean rag, remove all oil from the dipstick. Insert the clean dipstick into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it again. Keep the handle up so the oil doesn't run along the dipstick to give a false reading.

2

Car Care
0 If you have to add oil frequently, you should check whether you have any oil leaks. Place some clean paper under the car overnight, and check for stains in the morning. If there are no leaks, the engine may be burning oil (see "Fault Finding"). Overfilling the engine with oil may lead to catalytic converter failure. Always maintain the level between the upper and lower dipstick marks (see photo 3). If the level is too low severe engine damage may occur. Oil seal failure may result if the engine is overfilled by adding too much oil.

l

Note the oil level on the end of the dipstick, which should be between the upper (`MAX') mark and the lower (`MIN') mark. Adding approximately 1 .O litre of oil will raise the level from the lower to the upper mark.

3

Oil is added through the oil filler cap unscrew the cap and top up the level; a funnel may help to reduce spillage. Add the oil 0.5 litre at a time, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. DO NOT overfill the engine (see Car Cafe).

4

Coolant level
Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank ! pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very great risk of scalding. Do not leave open containers of coolant about, as it is poisonous.

A

Car Care
0 With a sealed-type cooling system, adding coolant should not be necessary on a regular basis. If frequent topping-up is required, it is likely there is a leak. Check the radiator, all hoses and joint faces for signs of staining or wetness, and rectify as necessary. 0 It is important that antifreeze is used in the cooling system all year round, not just during the winter months. Don't top-up with water alone, as the antifreeze will become too diluted.

The coolant level varies with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MAX" and "MIN" marks. When hot, the level may rise above the "MAX" mark.

1

If topping up is necessary, wait until the engine is cold. Slowly unscrew the expansion tank cap, to release any pressure present in the cooling system, and remove it.

2

Add a mixture of water and antifreeze to the expansion tank until the coolant level is halfway between the level marks. Refit the cap and tighten it securely.

3

0.12 Weekly checks
Brake fluid level
Warning: 0 Brake fluid can harm your eyes and damage pain ted surfaces, so use extreme caution when handling and pouring it. 0 Do not use fluid that has been standing open for some time, as it absorbs moisture from the air, which can cause a dangerous loss of braking effectiveness.

The "MAX" and "MIN" marks are shown on the front of the reservoir. The fluid level must be kept between the marks at all times. If topping-up is necessary, first clean around the reservoir cap.

1

2

Unscrew the cap and carefully lift it out, taking care not to damage the level switch float. Inspect the reservoir; if the fluid is dirty the hydraulic system should be drained and refilled (see Chapter 1)

Safety First!
0 If the reservoir requires repeated toppingup this is an indication of a fluid leak somewhere in the system, which should be investigated immediately. 0 If a leak is suspected, the car should not be driven until the braking system has been checked. Never take any risks where brakes are concerned.

Carefully add fluid, taking care not to spill it onto the surrounding components. Use only the specified fluid; mixing different types can cause damage to the system. After topping-up to the correct level, securely refit the cap and wipe off any spilt fluid

3

After topping-up the fluid level have an assistant depress the warning light test plunger on the top of the reservoir. With the ignition switched on, the warning light on the instrument panel should light up

4

Screen washer fluid level
Screenwash additives not only keep the winscreen clean during foul weather, they also prevent the washer system freezing in cold weather - which is when you are likely to need it most. Don't top up using plain water as the screenwash will become too diluted, and will freeze during cold weather. On no account use coolant antifreeze in the washer system - this could discolour or damage paintwork.

1

The screen washer fluid reservoir (arrowed) is located in the front left-hand corner of the engine compartment.

The screen washer level can be seen through the reservoir body. If topping-up is necessary, open the cap. When topping-up the reservoir, add a screenwash additive in the quantities recommended on the bottle.

2

Weekly checks 0.13
Wiper blades

Check the condition of the wiper blades; if they are cracked or show any signs of deterioration, or if the glass swept area is smeared, renew them. Wiper blades should be renewed annually.

1

2

To remove a windscreen wiper blade, pull the arm fully away from the screen until it locks. Swivel the blade through 90" and slide it downwards . . .

3

. . . then remove the blade from the arm.

Battery
Caution: Before carrying out any work on the vehicle battery, read the precautions given in "Safety first" at the start of this manual, (/ Make sure that the battery tray is in good condition, and that the clamp is tight, Corrosion on the tray, retaining clamp and the battery itself can be removed with a solution of water and baking soda. Thoroughly rinse all cleaned areas with water. Any metal parts damaged by corrosion should be covered with a zinc-based primer, then painted. (/Periodically (approximately every three months), check the charge condition of the battery as described in Chapter 5A. d If the battery is flat, and you need to jump start your vehicle, see Roadside Repairs.

The battery is located in the plenum chamber at the rear right-hand side of the engine compartment. The exterior of the battery should be inspected periodically for damage such as a cracked case or cover.

1

Check the tightness of battery clamps (A) to ensure good electrical connections. You should not be able to move them. Also check each cable (B) for cracks and frayed conductors.

2

If corrosion (white, fluffy deposits) is evident, remove the cables from the battery terminals, clean them with a small wire brush, then refit them. Automotive stores sell a tool for cleaning the battery post . . .

3

4 ...

as well as the battery cable clamps

0.14 Weekly checks
Tyre condition and pressure
It is very important that tyres are in good condition, and at the correct pressure - having a tyre failure at any speed is highly dangerous. Tyre wear is influenced by driving style - harsh braking and acceleration, or fast cornering, will all produce more rapid tyre wear. As a general rule, the front tyres wear out faster than the rears. Interchanging the tyres from front to rear ("rotating" the tyres) may result in more even wear. However, if this is completely effective, you may have the expense of replacing all four tyres at once! Remove any nails or stones embedded in the tread before they penetrate the tyre to cause deflation. If removal of a nail does reveal that the tyre has been punctured, refit the nail so that its point of penetration is marked. Then immediately change the wheel, and have the tyre repaired by a tyre dealer. Regularly check the tyres for damage in the form of cuts or bulges, especially in the sidewalls. Periodically remove the wheels, and clean any dirt or mud from the inside and outside surfaces. Examine the wheel rims for signs of rusting, corrosion or other damage. Light alloy wheels are easily damaged by "kerbing" whilst parking; steel wheels may also become dented or buckled. A new wheel is very often the only way to overcome severe damage. New tyres should be balanced when they are fitted, but it may become necessary to rebalance them as they wear, or if the balance weights fitted to the wheel rim should fall off. Unbalanced tyres will wear more quickly, as will the steering and suspension components. Wheel imbalance is normally signified by vibration, particularly at a certain speed (typically around 50 mph). If this vibration is felt only through the steering, then it is likely that just the front wheels need balancing. If, however, the vibration is felt through the whole car, the rear wheels could be out of balance. Wheel balancing should be carried out by a tyre dealer or garage.

The original tyres have tread wear safety bands (B), which will appear when the tread depth reaches approximately 1.6 mm. The band positions are indicated by a triangular mark on the tyre sidewall (A).

1

Tread Depth - visual check

2

Tread Depth - manual check

Alternatively, tread wear can be monitored with a simple, inexpensive device known as a tread depth indicator gauge.

Check the tyre pressures regularly with the tyres cold. Do not adjust the tyre pressures immediately after the vehicle has been used, or an inaccurate setting will result.

3

Tyre Pressure Check

Tyre tread wear patterns

Shoulder Wear
Underinflation (wear on both sides) Under-inflation will cause overheating of the tyre, because the tyre will flex too much, and the tread will not sit correctly on the road surface. This will cause a loss of grip and excessive wear, not to mention the danger of sudden tyre failure due to heat build-up. Check and adjust pressures Incorrect wheel camber (wear on one side) Repair or renew suspension parts Hard cornering Reduce speed!

Centre Wear
Overinflation Over-inflation will cause rapid wear of the centre part of the tyre tread, coupled with reduced grip, harsher ride, and the danger of shock damage occurring in the tyre casing. Check and adjust pressures If you sometimes have to inflate your car's tyres to the higher pressures specified for maximum load or sustained high speed, don't forget to reduce the pressures to normal afterwards.

Uneven Wear
Front tyres may wear unevenly as a result of wheel misalignment. Most tyre dealers and garages can check and adjust the wheel alignment (or "tracking") for a modest charge. Incorrect camber or castor Repair or renew suspension parts Malfunctioning suspension Repair or renew suspension parts Unbalanced wheel Balance tyres Incorrect toe setting Adjust front wheel alignment Note: The feathered edge of the tread which typifies toe wear is best checked by fee/.

Weekly checks 0.15
Bulbs and fuses
0 Check all external lights and the horn. Refer to the appropriate Sections of Chapter 12 for details if any of the circuits are found to be inoperative. (/Visually check all accessible wiring connectors, harnesses and retaining clips for security, and for signs of chafing or damage. If a single indicator light, stop-light or headlight has failed, it is likely that a bulb has blown and will need to be replaced. Refer to Chapter 12 for details. If both stoplights have failed, it is possible that the switch has failed (see Chapter 9).

1

If more than one indicator light or tail light has failed it is likely that either a fuse has blown or that there is a fault in the circuit. The fuses are located in the plenum chamber at the left-hand rear of the engine compartment. To replace a blown fuse, squeeze the cover and remove it from the fusebox, then simply pull out the blown fuse and fit a new one of the correct rating. If the fuse blows again, it is important that you find out why - a complete checking procedure is given in Chapter 12.

2

0.16 Lubricants, fluids and tyre pressures Lubricants and fluids
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Braking system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 10W/40 to 2OW/50, to WV specification 501 01 Ethylene glycol based antifreeze Gear oil, viscosity SAE 80 or 75W-90 Hydraulic fluid to SAE J1703F or DOT4

Tyre pressures
Up to half load - bar (psi): 135R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145Rl3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155/70R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165/65R13 or 175/60R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full load - bar (psi): 135R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155/7OR13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165/65R13 or 175/60R13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front 1.9 (28) 1.7 (25) 1.8 (26) 1.8 (26) Front 2.2 (32) 1.9 (28) 2.1 (31) 2.2 (32) Rear 1.9(28) 1.7 (25) 1.8 (26) 1.8 (26) Rear 2.5 (36) 2.2 (32) 2.4 (35) 2.6 (38)

Note: Pressures apply only to original-equipment tyres, and may vary slightly if any other make of tyre is fitted; check with the tyre manufacturer or supplier for the correct pressures if necessary. The correct pressures for each individual vehicle are usually given on a sticker inside the glovebox lid or inside the fuel filler flap. This information may conflict with that shown above - in this case, consult your VW dealer for the latest recommendations. The spare wheel should be kept at the highest full-load pressure.

Chapter 1 Routine maintenance and servicing

Contents
Air filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Auxiliary drivebelt check and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Brake fluid renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Brake system and fluid leakage check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Clutch play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Coolant renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Driveshaft gaiter check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Engine management system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Engine oil and filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Exhaust emission and idle speed check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Exhaustsystemcheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Frontbrakepad check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fuel filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Headlight beam alignment check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Hinge and lock lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Hose and fluid leak check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rear brake shoe check - models with rear drum brakes . . . . . . . . . . .3 Roadtest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..12 Sliding roof runner lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Spark plug renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Steeringandsuspension check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing belt renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Underbody sealant condition check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Degrees of difficulty

1.2 Servicing specifications
Lubricants and fluids - Refer to end of "weekly checks" Capacities
Engine oil All except G40 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G40models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooling system .......................................... Transmission 4speed models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5speed models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fueltank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washer reservoirs Models with headlight washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Models without headlight washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 litres 3.25 litres 5.6 litres (approx) 2.2 litres 3.1 litres 42 litres 4.5 litres 7.5 litres

Engine
Oil filter: Engine codes AAU, 3F (to 07/92), PY (to 07/90) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine codes AAV, 3F (from 08192) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine codes PY (from 08/90) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C160 Champion C181 Champion C155

Cooling system
Antifreeze mixture: 28% antifreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50% antifreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Note: Refer to antifreeze manufacturer for latest recommendations. Protection down to -15C (5F) Protection down to -30C (-22F)

Fuel system
Air filter element: Enginecodes AAUAAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EnginecodesPY,3F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W102 Champion U505 Champion L206 5 1 BTDC Champion N7BYC Champion NGBYC N/A (refer to spark plug manufacturer's specification)

Ignition system
Ignition timing, all models (basic setting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spark plugs: EnginecodesAAU,AAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enginecodes3F,PY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrodegap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Auxiliary drivebelt (v-belt) deflection
New belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 mm max. 5 mm max. 7.0 mm 2.5 mm Nm Ibf ft

Brakes
Brake pad friction material minimum thickness (including backplate) . . Brake shoe friction material minimum thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Torque wrench settings
Alternator tensioning nut: Initial tightening: New belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final tightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternator tensioning nut lockscrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternator upper mounting screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternator tensioning strut screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-charger bracket tensioning torque: New belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-charger mounting bracket screws: M12 screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M8 screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sumpdrainplug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spark plugs: All models except G40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G40 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheel bolts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 4 8 35 35 20 135 80 80 30 30 20 25 110

6 3 6 26 26 15 100 59 59 22 22 15 18 81

Maintenance schedule 1.3
The maintenance intervals in this manual are provided with the assumption that you, not the dealer, will be carrying out the work. These are the minimum maintenance intervals recommended by us for vehicles driven daily. If you wish to keep your vehicle in peak performance and resale value of your vehicle. condition at all times, you may wish to When the vehicle is new, it should be perform some of these procedures more serviced by a factory-authorised dealer often. We encourage frequent maintenance, service department, in order to preserve the because it enhances the efficiency, factory warranty.

1.4 Maintenance & servicing
Underbonnet view of a 1.3 litre model
1 Battery 2 Brake fluid reservoir 3 Brake servo 4 Throttle body 5 Fuel injectors 6 Spark plugs 7 Oil filler cap 8 Air cleaner/air flow meter assembly 9 Timing belt cover 10 Ignition distributor 11 Coo/ant expansion tank 12 Front suspension strut top mounting 13 Ignition coil 14 Exhaust CO sampling pipe

Front underbody view
1 Alternator
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 Radiator Oil filter Front brake caliper Driveshaft Catalytic converter Lambda sensor Gearchange linkage Anti-roll bar Lower suspension arm

Maintenance & servicing 1.5
Rear underbody view
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Exhaust tailbox Rear shock absorber Rear axle beam Rear brake pressurrewe regulating valve Handbrake cable Fuel filter Line fuel pump Accumulator

Maintenance procedures
General information
This Chapter is designed to help the home mechanic maintain his/her vehicle for safety, economy, long life and peak performance. The Chapter contains a master maintenance schedule, followed by Sections dealing specifically with each task in the schedule. Visual checks, adjustments, component renewal and other helpful items are included. Refer to the accompanying illustrations of the engine compartment and the underside of the vehicle for the locations of the various components. Servicing your vehicle in accordance with the mileage/time maintenance schedule and the following Sections will provide a planned maintenance programme, which should result in a long and reliable service life. This is a comprehensive plan, so maintaining some items but not others at the specified service intervals, will not produce the same results. As you service your vehicle, you will discover that many of the procedures can and should - be grouped together, because of the particular procedure being performed, or because of the proximity of two otherwiseunrelated components to one another. For example, if the vehicle is raised for any reason, the exhaust can be inspected at the same time as the suspension and steering components. T h e f i r s t s t e p in this maintenance programme is to prepare yourself before the actual work begins. Read through all the Sections relevant to the work to be carried out, then make a list and gather all the parts and tools required. If a problem is encountered, seek advice from a parts specialist, or a dealer service department. kept in relatively good running condition, and the need for additional work will be minimised. It is possible that there will be times when the engine is running poorly due to the lack of regular maintenance. This is even more likely if a used vehicle, which has not received regular and frequent maintenance checks, is purchased. In such cases, additional work may need to be carried out, outside of the regular maintenance intervals. If engine wear is suspected, a compression test (refer to the relevant Part of Chapter 2) will provide valuable information regarding the overall performance of the main internal components. Such a test can be used as a basis to decide on the extent of the work to be carried out. If, for example, a compression test indicates serious internal engine wear, conventional maintenance as described in this Chapter will not greatly improve the performance of the engine, and may prove a waste of time and money, unless extensive overhaul work is carried out first.

Intensive maintenance
If, from the time the vehicle is new, the routine maintenance schedule is followed closely, and frequent checks are made of fluid levels and high-wear items, as suggested throughout this manual, the engine will be

1.6 Maintenance procedures
The following series of operations are those which are most often required to improve the performance of a generally poor-running engine: e) inspect the distributor cap and rotor arm (refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 5B). f) Check the condition of the air filter, and renew if necessary (Section 1 7). g) Renew the fuel filter (Section 21). h) Check the condition of all hoses, and check for fluid leaks (Section 5). i) Check the exhaust gas emissions (refer to Section 14). If the above operations do not prove fully effective, carry out the following secondary operations:

Secondary operations
All items listed under "Primary operations", plus the following: a) Check the charging system (refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 5A). b) Check the ignition system (refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 5B). c) Check the fuel system (see relevant Section of Chapter 4A or B as applicable). d) Renew the distributor cap and rotor am, (refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 5B). e) Renew the ignition HT leads (refer to the relevant Section of Chapter 50).

Primary operations
a) Clean, inspect and test the battery (refer to "Weekly checks"). b) Check all the engine-related fluids (refer to "Weekly checks"). cl Check the condition and tension of the auxiliary drivebelt (Section 15). d) Renew the spark plugs (Section 7.6).

10 000 mile/12 month service
driven onto ramps, or jacked up and supported on axle stands (see "Jacking and vehicle support"). Whichever method is chosen, make sure that the vehicle remains level, or (if it has been jacked-up at an angle), that the drain plug is at the lowest point. 5 Using a socket and wrench or a ring spanner, slacken the sump drain plug about half a turn until it can be rotated by hand (see illustration). Position the draining container under the drain plug, (noting that the stream of oil may initially run out at an angle, rather than straight down) then unscrew the plug completely (see Haynes Hint). Recover the sealing ring from the drain plug. 6 Allow some time for the old oil to drain, noting that it may be necessary to reposition the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle. If you are working outside, shield the container from draughts that may splash the stream of oil onto the ground. 7 After all the oil has drained, wipe off the drain plug with a clean rag, and fit a new sealing washer. Clean the area around the drain plug opening, and refit the plug. Tighten the plug securely. 8 If the filter is also to be renewed, move the container into position under the oil filter, which is located on the front side of the cylinder block, below the inlet manifold. 9 Using an oil filter removal tool if necessary, slacken the filter initially (by turning it in an anticlockwise direction), then unscrew it by hand the rest of the way (see illustration). Note that the filter will still contain some oil be prepared for an amount of leakage as the filter is unscrewed. Hold it with the sealing face uppermost until it can be emptied into the draining container. 10 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and sludge from the filter sealing area on the engine. Check the old filter to make sure that the rubber sealing ring has not stuck to the engine. If it has, carefully remove it. 11 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter, then screw it into position on the engine. Tighten the filter firmly by hand only - do not use any tools, as these may damage the outer surface filter. 12 Remove the old oil and all tools from under the car then lower the car to the ground (if applicable). 13 Remove the dipstick, then unscrew the oil filler cap from the cylinder head cover or oil filler/breather neck (as applicable). Fill the engine, using the correct grade and type of oil (refer to "Lubricants fluids and capacities"). An oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce spillage. Pour in half the specified quantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes for the oil to .

1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most important preventative maintenance procedures which can be undertaken by the DIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomes diluted and contaminated, which leads to premature engine wear. 2 Before starting this procedure, gather all the necessary tools and materials. Also make sure that you have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy, to mop up any accidental spills. 3 The oil draining procedure should ideally be carried out when the engine is warm, as warm oil runs more freely than cold oil. In addition, more built-up engine `sludge' will be removed with the oil, as it is drained . Take care, however, not to touch the exhaust or any other hot parts of the engine when working under the vehicle. To avoid any possibility of scalding, and to protect yourself from possible skin irritants and other harmful contaminants in used engine oils, it is advisable to wear gloves when carrying out this work. 4 Access to the underside of the vehicle will be greatly improved if it can be raised on a lift,

1.5 Using a socket and wrench or a ring spanner, slacken the sump drain plug (arrowedl

1.9 Turn the oil filter anticlockwise to slacken it - use a chain wrench if necessary

,

10 000 mile/12 month service 1.7
collect in the sump. Continue adding oil a small quantity at a time until the level is just above the lower mark on the dipstick. Adding approximately 1.0 litres will raise the level from the lower mark to the upper mark on the dipstick. Refit the filler cap. 14 Start the engine and run it for a few minutes; check for leaks around the oil filter seal and the sump drain plug. Note that there may be a delay of a few seconds before the oil pressure warning light goes out when the engine is first started, as the oil circulates through the engine oil galleries and (where applicable) the new oil filter before the pressure builds up. If the oil pressure warning light does not extinguish after the engine has started and run for several seconds, stop the engine immediately and check for leaks around the components that have been disturbed. 15 Switch off the engine, and wait a few minutes for the new oil to settle into the sump. With the new oil circulated and the filter now completely full, recheck the level on the dipstick, and add more oil as necessary. 16 Dispose of the used engine oil safely, with reference to "General repair procedures" in the Reference Sections of this manual.

2.2a Checking the front brake outer pad linings for wear with a steel rule

2.2b Check the front brake inner pad linings through the hole in the caliper through the hole on the front of the caliper (see illustrations). 3 For a comprehensive check, the brake pads should be removed and cleaned. The operation of the caliper can then also be checked, and the condition of the brake disc itself can be fully examined on both sides. Refer to Chapter 9 for further information. 4 If any pad's friction material is worn to the specified thickness or less, all four pads must. be renewed as a set. Refer to Chapter 9. 5 On completion refit the roadwheels and lower the car to the ground.

2 Front brake pad check

1 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the car and support it securely on axle stands (see "Jacking and vehicle support"). Remove the front roadwheels. 2 Using a steel rule, measure the combined thickness of the lining and backing of the brake pads on both front brakes. This must not be less than 7.0 mm. Check the inner pad

Every 12 months - regardless of mileage
4 At the same time check for signs of brake fluid leakage. 5 For a comprehensive check, the brake drum should be removed and cleaned. This will allow the wheel cylinders to be checked, and the condition of the brake drum itself to be fully examined (see Chapter 9). 6 Refit the rubber plugs then lower the car to the ground.

.
disengage the clutch. At this point, repeat the measurement described in paragraph 1. 3 Compare the measurement with the value listed in the Specifications - if the free play exceeds the maximum permitted, adjust the cable as described in the following sub- : Section.

1 Jack up the rear of the car and support on axle stands (see "Jacking and v e h i c l e support"). Do not remove the wheels. 2 Working beneath the car remove the rubber plugs from the front of the backplates and check that the linings are not worn below the minimum thickness given in the Specifications (see illustration). If necessary use a torch. 3 If the friction material on any shoe is worn down to the specified minimum thickness or less, all four shoes must be renewed as a set.

Adjustment
4 Open the bonnet and locate the clutch cable adjusting nut, on the upper surface of the transmission casing. 5 Rotate the nut through half a turn, using a spanner, to take up the slack in the cable. Measure the clutch pedal freeplay again, as described in the previous sub-Section. 6 Repeat the operations described in paragraphs 4 and 5 until the correct pedal freeplay is achieved.

Note: This procedure does not apply to vehicles fitted with an automatic clutch cab/e adjustment mechanism.

Measurement
1 Park the vehicle and switch off the engine. Select neutral, then depress the clutch pedal several times, to settle the release mechanism components. With no pressure applied to the pedal, measure the distance between the pedal rubber and a fixed reference point, such as the bottom edge of the steering wheel - a length of batten can be used to serve as a measuring rule. 2 Gradually apply pressure to the clutch pedal, until firm resistance is felt, indicating that the release mechanism is beginning to

5

3.2 Rear brake shoe lining inspection plug location

1 Visually inspect the engine joint faces, gaskets and seals for any signs of water or oil leaks. Pay particular attention to the areas around the camshaft cover, cylinder head, oil filter and sump joint faces. Bear in mind that, over a period of time, some very slight seepage from these areas is to be expected -

1.8 Every 12 months - regardless of mileage

8.3a Check the exhaust pipe connections (arrowed) for evidence of leaks, severe corrosion and damage

/ 8.3b Make sure that all brackets and mountings (arrowed) are in good condition

what you are really looking for is any indication of a serious leak (see Haynes Hint). Should a leak be found, renew the offending gasket or oil seal by referring to the appropriate Chapters in this manual. 2 Also check the security and condition of all the engine-related pipes and hoses. Ensure that all cable-ties or securing clips are in place and in good condition. Clips which are broken or missing can lead to chafing of the hoses, pipes or wiring, which could cause more serious problems in the future. 3 Carefully check the radiator hoses and heater hoses along their entire length. Renew any hose which is cracked, swollen or deteriorated. Cracks will show up better if the hose is squeezed. Pay close attention to the hose clips that secure the hoses to the cooling system components. Hose clips can pinch and puncture hoses, resulting in cooling system leaks. 4 Inspect all the cooling system components (hoses, joint faces etc.) for leaks. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as whiteor rust-coloured deposits on the area adjoining the leak. Where any problems of this nature are found on system components, renew the component or gasket with reference to Chapter 3. 5 On G40 models, check the oil supply and return line unions at the supercharger for leakage. Any reduction in the oil supply to the supercharger will accelerate wear and may ultimately result in failure. 6 With the vehicle raised, inspect the petrol tank and filler neck for punctures, cracks and other damage. The connection between the filler neck and tank is especially critical. Sometimes a rubber filler neck or connecting hose will leak due to loose retaining clamps or deteriorated rubber. 7 Carefully check all rubber hoses and metal fuel lines leading away from the petrol tank. Check for loose connections, deteriorated hoses, crimped lines, and other damage. Pay particular attention to the vent pipes and hoses, which often loop up around the filler neck and can become blocked or crimped. Follow the lines to the front of the vehicle,

carefully inspecting them all the way. Renew damaged sections as necessary. 8 From within the engine compartment, check the security of all fuel hose attachments and pipe unions, and inspect the fuel hoses and vacuum hoses for kinks, chafing and deterioration,

Lubricate the hinges of the bonnet, doors and tailgate with a light general-purpose oil. Similarly, lubricate all latches, locks and lock strikers. At the same time, check the security and operation of all the locks, adjusting them if necessary (see Chapter 11). Lightly lubricate the bonnet release mechanism and cable with a suitable grease.

complete exhaust system from the engine to the end of the tailpipe. 3 Check the exhaust pipes and connections for evidence of leaks, severe corrosion and damage. Make sure that all brackets and mountings are in good condition, and that all relevant nuts and bolts are tight. Leakage at any of the joints or in other parts of the system will usually show up as a black sooty stain in the vicinity of the leak (see illustrations). 4 Rattles and other noises can often be traced to the exhaust system, especially the brackets and mountings. Try to move the pipes and silencers. If the components are able to come into contact with the body or suspension parts, secure the system with new mountings. Otherwise, with reference to Chapter 4C, loosen the joints between adjacent sections of the exhaust pipe by slackening the clamps (where possible) and twist the pipes as necessary to provide additional clearance. Re-tighten the exhaust pipe clamps on completion.

suspension and steering
1 Raise the front of the vehicle, and securely support it on axle stands (see jacking a n d vehicle support"). 2 Visually inspect the balljoint dust covers and the steering rack-and-pinion gaiters for splits, chafing or deterioration. Any wear of these components will cause loss of lubricant, together with dirt and water entry, resulting in rapid deterioration of the balljoints or steering gear. 3 On vehicles with power steering, check the fluid hoses for chafing or deterioration, and the pipe and hose unions for fluid leaks. Also check for signs of fluid leakage under pressure from the steering gear rubber gaiters, which would indicate failed fluid seals within the steering gear.

1 Park the vehicle on a level surface and switch off the engine. Chock the front wheels and select first gear, then raise the rear of the vehicle and rest it securely on axle stands (see "Jacking and vehicle support"). 2 With the engine cold (wait at least an hour after switching off the engine), check the

Every 12 months - regardless of mileage 1.9

9.4 Check for wear in the hub bearings by grasping the wheel and trying to rock it

10.1 Check the condition of the driveshaft gaiters

11.4 Headlight beam adjustment screws A Vertical adjustment B Horizontal adjustment 2 Position the car on a level surface with tyres correctly inflated, approximately 10 metres in front of, and at right-angles to, a wall or garage door. 3 Draw a horizontal line on the wall or door at headlamp centre height. Draw a vertical line corresponding to the centre line of the car, then measure off a point either side of this, on the horizontal line, corresponding with the headlamp centres. 4 Switch on the main beam and check that the areas of maximum illumination coincide with the headlamp centre marks on the wall. If not, turn the crosshead adjustment screw located on the inner vertical edge of the headlight to adjust the beam laterally, and the crosshead adjustment screw located on the outer lower corner of the headlight to adjust the beam vertically (see illustration). O n models with a headlight adjustment on the instrument panel, make sure that it is set at its basic setting before making the adjustment.

4 Grasp the roadwheel at the 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions, and try to rock it (see illustration). Very slight free play may be felt, but if the movement is appreciable, further investigation is necessary to determine the source. Continue rocking the wheel while an assistant depresses the footbrake. If the movement is now eliminated or significantly reduced, it is likely that the hub bearings are at fault. If the free play is still evident with the footbrake depressed, then there is wear in the suspension joints or mountings. 5 Now grasp the wheel at the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock positions, and try to rock it as before. Any movement felt now may again be caused by wear in the hub bearings or the steering track-rod balljoints. If the inner or outer balljoint is worn, the visual movement will be obvious. 6 Using a large screwdriver or flat bar, check for wear in the suspension mounting bushes by levering between the relevant suspension component and its attachment point. Some movement is to be expected as the mountings are made of rubber, but excessive wear should be obvious. Also check the condition of any visible rubber bushes, looking for splits, cracks or contamination of the rubber. 7 With the car standing on its wheels, have an assistant turn the steering wheel back and forth about an eighth of a turn each way. There should be very little, if any, lost movement between the steering wheel and roadwheels. If this is not the case, closely observe the joints and mountings previously described, but in addition, check the steering column universal joints for wear, and the rackand-pinion steering gear itself.

the vehicle at each corner. Generally speaking, the body will return to its normal position and stop after being depressed. If it rises and returns on a rebound, the suspension strut/shock absorber is probably suspect. Examine also the suspension strut/shock absorber upper and lower mountings for any signs of wear.

10 Driveshaft gaiter check

With the vehicle raised and securely supported on stands, turn the steering onto full lock, then slowly rotate the roadwheel. Inspect the condition of the outer constant velocity (CV) joint rubber gaiters, squeezing the gaiters to open out the folds. Check for signs of cracking, splits or deterioration of the rubber, which may allow the grease to escape, and lead to water and grit entry into the joint. Also check the security and condition of the retaining clips. Repeat these checks on the inner CV joints (see illustration). If any damage or deterioration is found, the gaiters should be renewed (see Chapter 8). At the same time, check the general condition of the CV joints themselves by first holding the driveshaft and attempting to rotate the wheel. Repeat this check by holding the inner joint and attempting to rotate the driveshaft. Any appreciable movement indicates wear in the joints, wear in the driveshaft splines, or a loose driveshaft retaining nut.

12 Road test

Instruments and electrical equipment
1 Check the operation of all instruments and electrical equipment. 2 Make sure that all instruments read correctly, and switch on all electrical equipment in turn, to check that it functions properly.

Suspension strut/shock absorber check
8 Check for any signs of fluid leakage around the suspension strut/shock absorber body, or from the rubber gaiter around the piston rod. Should any fluid be noticed, the suspension strut/shock absorber is defective internally, and should be renewed. Note: Suspension struts/shock absorbers should always be renewed in pairs on the same axle. 9 The efficiency of the suspension strut/ shock absorber may be checked by bouncing

Steering and suspension
3 Check for any abnormalities in the steering, suspension, handling or road "feel". 4 Drive the vehicle, and check that there are no unusual vibrations or noises. 5 Check that the steering feels positive, with no excessive "sloppiness", or roughness, and check for any suspension noises when cornering and driving over bumps.

11 Headlight beam alignment check
1 Accurate adjustment of the headlight beam is only possible using optical beam-setting equipment, and this work should therefore be carried out by a VW dealer or service station with the necessary facilities. In an emergency, however, the following procedure will provide an acceptable light pattern.

Drive train
6 Check the performance of the engine, clutch, gearbox/ transmission and driveshafts.

1.10 Every 12 months - regardless of mileage
15 Test the operation of the brake servo unit as follows. With the engine off, depress the footbrake four or five times to exhaust the vacuum. Hold the brake pedal depressed, then start the engine. As the engine starts, there should be a noticeable "give" in the brake pedal as vacuum builds up. Allow the engine to run for at least two minutes, and then switch it off. If the brake pedal is depressed now, it should be possible to detect a hiss from the servo as the pedal is depressed. After about four or five depressions, no further hissing should be heard, and the pedal should feel considerably harder. without using dedicated test equipment. The use of improvised tools for this purpose may result in internal damage to the engine management system electronic control unit. 4 If access to suitable test equipment is not possible, make a thorough check of all ignition, fuel and emission control system components, hoses, and wiring, for security and obvi