Text preview for : Tektronix_Spectrum_Analysis_Using_Waveguide_Mixers.pdf part of Tektronix Tektronix Spectrum Analysis Using Waveguide Mixers Tektronix publikacje Tektronix_Spectrum_Analysis_Using_Waveguide_Mixers.pdf
Back to : Tektronix_Spectrum_Analys | Home
I. Spectrum Analyzer Considerations Using External
II. Broadband Harmonic Waveguide Mixers . . . . . . . . . . 5
Ill. Using the 490 Series Spectrum Analyzers in the
External Mixer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1V. Specific Measurement Examples:
1 Gunn Oscillators 9
2. Klystrons 9
3. Irnpatt (avalanche) Diode Oscillators .. .... . . . 9
V. Waveguide Mixer Characteristics
1. Individual Mixer Electrical Characteristics . . 10
2. Performance Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Individual Mixer Mechanical Characteristics . . . . . . . 11
Waveguide Mixers was wriifen by
Spectrum Analysis Utti~ztng
Bob dim. Design Engineer, and Len Garmff,Product Marketing Manager,
Frequency Domain InstrumenZs, Tektmnix, Inc.
opyright 8 1989 Tekbonlx, Im. All rlghls resewed.
1. Spectrum Analyzer Additionally, some type of signal The 492 Spectrum Analyzer provides
Considerations Using identification is n e e d d to identify a drive level of + 7.0 dBm rnln1rnLlrn
External Waveguide the desired IF response from images to + 15 dBm maximum through a
and other harmonic conversion front panel SMA female connector
Mixers products. and an external diplexer.
Whether a measurement is made Spectrum measurements requiring A 3 dB power divider inside the 492
at audio frequencies or millimeter detailed analysis of highly stable mi- splits the LO power between the in-
wavelengths, the spectrum analyzer crowave and millimeter wave sources ternal first converter and the first LO
is used to measure amplitude vs. require that the spectrum analyzer front panel output connector used
frequency. residual FM (multiplied by the LO with external waveguide mixers or
Typical measurements include the harmonic number) not exceed ap- tracking generator. Figure 2 shows
spectral energy distribution or sig- proximately one third of resolution the location of this LO port on the
nature of the energy source. This bandwidth in use if a clean CRT 492 Spectrum Analyzer.
can be as simple as measuring har- trace is to be obtained. As LO
monic levels of a continuous wave FM'ing increases, the CRT trace
source to a more complicated oc- width will increase.
cupied bandwidth measurement of The remaining paragraphs of Section
a digital microwave transmission One will cover in more detail some of
the above mentioned requirements.
Actual spectrum analyzer measure-
ments at millimeter wavelengths differ LO Power Output Requirements
from lower frequency measurements
in the transition from coaxial cables Local oscillator power requ~rement
to waveguides. is a key consideration in millimeter-
wave conversion. Figure 1 shows the
Most spectrum analyzers have an typical effects of conversion loss vs. r"
internal mixer upper frequency limit
of 21 to 22 GHz, and utilize a type
LO drive level for a harmonic mixer, I
in this case operating at 50 GHz. F~gure LO port
" N" RF input connector.
When the required measurement is
above 22 GHz, some type of exter-
nal mixing is required. Current tech-
niques utilize harmonics of the spec-
trum analyzer firs! sweeping LO and
an external harmonic waveguide
mixer covering the desired fre-
Spectrum analyzers designed to
operate in the waveguide bands of
18 GHz and higher must have suffi-
cient LO power to drive the exter-
nal mixer, an internal or external
'bias supply to optimize the mixer
diode condudian angle for best
sensitivity, and an external or in-
ternal diplexer to separate the LO
signal and the desired IF signal.
Suitable frequency calibration must
also be available.
Figure 1 . Effects of LO drive level vs. conversion loss.
Waveguide Mixer Bias Peaking at 1 GHz intervals will typi-
Mixer diode conduction angle is an cally provide sensitivity wrth~n to 2
important consideration in harmonic dB of maximum over each wave-
conversion loss, which translates to guide mixer frequency range.
sensitivity, The optimum conduction
angle varies with LO frequency, Diplexer Use
power, and harmonic number. A In the waveguide bands, spectrum
variabSe mixer bias supply was de- analyzers often use a quadrature
signed into the 492 Spectrum hybrid diplexer, a 4-port 3 dB cou-
Analyzer to allow optimizing this pler that divides the input signal into
conduction angle for each fre- two mutually isolated quadrature Figure 5. MAX SPAN display in response
quency of interest. phased (90 degree) outputs while to ANY signal applied to ANY
maintaining isolation of the fourth adernal rnirer band.
The mixer bias ( + 0.5 to - 2.0 volts;
20 mA maximum) is supplied to the port from the input. This prevents Some means of true signal identifi-
waveguide mixer through the 2.072 LO energy from reaching port (1) cation is very important. Only if the
GHz IF input port on the 492 via and IF energy from reaching port correct signal response is analyzed
the external diplexer. This input has (2). Figure 4 represents this type of can we truly measure its correct fre-
a TNC fitting and is labeled external diplexer and its connections to the quency, amplitude and bandwidth
mixer (Figure 3). 492 Spectrum Analyzer and external characteristics.
The 492 Spectrum Analyzer uses
an alternating LO offset method to
identify the proper response. A zero
horizontal offset in alternating sweeps
while in the "identify" mode indi-
cates a conversion product at the
Adjusting the spanldiv to 500
kHzlDiv and pressing the signal
identifier buffon will cause the dis-
play to aRernately sweep with a 2-
division vertical offset. If the displayed
signal represents the conversion of
Figure 3. External mixer input. interest, the signal on the CRT will
move up and down in alternate
The peaking control is located next sweeps with very little horizontal
to the external mixer port and serves Figure 4. Quadrature hybrid diplexer.
movement as shown in Figure 6. If
as a mixer bias control for external the displayed signal represents any
mixers and as a preselector True Signal Identification
other conversion, there will be a
peaking control (on option 01 The harmonic conversion process significant offset in the horizontal
instruments) for frequencies be- is not without its problems. Sum and position on alternate sweeps
tween 1.7 G f f rand 21 GHz (in- difference frequencies due to each (Figure 7).
ternal mixer mode). The peaking harmonic ("N" number) of the LO
control is addressable through the will be generated by the mixer, and
GPIB Interface bus for automating many of these products will be
measurements. passed through the diplexer to
More than one value of peaking will the IF input port as the LO sweeps
typically occur for each frequency. over its full 2 to 6 GHz range. Doz-
The proper adjustment is always ens of on screen signals will appear
the maximum displayed signal in response to the many harmonic
amplitude. conversion products. (Figure 5. )
Figure 6. Spurious response display in the
Figure 7. True signal display In the
Signal identification with the
Tektronix 7L18 microwave Spec-
trum Analyzer is accomplished by
turning the frequency SpanlDiv con-
trol to "identify," This sets the
SpanlDiv to a value that will display
two pairs of signals (Figure 8). Only
the real response generates a dual Full set of Tektronix waveguide mixers covering both sets of overlapping bands from i8
GHz - 325 GHz.
pair of signals whose frequency
separation within each pair is exact-
ly two divisions. The real response II. Broadband Harmonic e A tapered RF load beyond the
is the left most signal of the left Waveguide Mixers diode to eliminate reflections and
pair. enhance broadband performance,
Unlike most lower-frequency coun-
terparts, the harmonic waveguide Careful design of the LOllF port
mixers are two-port devices. The low-pass filter to prevent higher
RF input signal to be analyzed is order modes and responses from
coupled to the mixer diode through propagating energy within the
a short section of waveguide. The waveguide bandwidth and there-
LO input and IF output are con- by decreasing performance. The
nected to the mixer diode through Iow-pass filter design is selected
a coaxial low-pass filter, a 3-rnm on the basis of reasonable physi-
coaxial connector and cable, and cal dimensions that place multiple
the external diplexer. resonances above or below, but
not within the desired waveguide
Key features in the design of the band. The low-pass cutoff fre-
Figure 8. The proper signal is identified harmonic mixers that make them
using the 7L18.
quency of the filter varies as
work well in the millimeter-wave required (within the electrical
frequency range are: constraints of the mixer) to rnain-
Use of single-ridged waveguide tain realistic mechanical dimen-
in the vicinity of the mixer diode sions.
to concentrate energy at the
The physical arrangement of the
diode junction for better sensitivity
filter provides a low-tmpedence
and lower conversion loss.
point at the LOAF interface where
An internal transition from rec- the mixer diode is mounted. The
tangular to ridged waveguide low impedence diode mount im-
eliminating the need for external proves the waveguide port VSWR
adaptors and flange joints. and matches impedance from the
Millimeter wave test set-up using the 7Lt8 diode to the LOllF port.
spectrum analyzer with external
The mixer chip is an array of clamp allows easy probing of a 111. Using the 490 Series
GaAs shottky-barrier diodes, very small diode; tightening of the Spectrum Analyzer in
each 2-pm in diameter. The diode clamp secures the probe without
junction is probed by the etched threatening the delicate probe-to-
the External Mixer
point of a gold plated ,026 mrn junction contact. Figure 9 is a Mode
(.001in) diameter tungsten "Cat's photo of the diode array magni- Spectrum analysis using external
Whisker." This design provides fied 240 times. waveguide mixers requires connect-
minimal junction capacitance and Figure 10 is a cross sectional ing the diplexer to the spectrum
probe inductance, eliminating in- view of the mixer construction analyzer, connecting the mixer LO
band resonances and minimizing detail with the low-pass fitter cable to the diplexer, and lastly
reflections. A unique mechanical shown in greater detail below. connecting to the waveguide mixer.
Connecting the cable to the diplexer
before attachment to the mixer
reduces mixer damage potential by
dissipating any cable stored charge.
The external mixer bands of any
spectrum analyzer are not prese-
jetted, and signals will appear on
screen in response to a single input
frequency at every positive and nega-
tive conversion of every harmonic af
the first local oscillator. A signal
identifier must be used in these
bands to locate the proper response
for accurate signal analysis.
S the 4921492P system, the
peaklaverage cursor must be
BELOW the noise to avoid aver-
Figure 9. Millimeter mixer diode array. aging all of the mixer responses in-
to the noise in wide spans. The
waveguide bands cover very large
REXOLlf E SLEEVE SLtDES
bandwidths and the signals can
easily be lost - even in the max-
imum resolution bandwidth. The
cursor can be moved back up after
spanning down on the signal.
The mixer peaking control adjusts
the DC bias to the mixers from +0.5
to -2.0 volts, with zero bias being
at approximately 9 o'clock on the
TRANSITION LOW-PASS FILTER ASSEMBLY
knob. It is a good idea to set the
(DIODE ARRAY ATTACHED) 'bias knob near this zero bias point
when connecting and disconnecting
the mixer cable to the mixers.
When the instrument is set into ANY
of the external mixer bands above
21 GHz, the MAX SPAN setting
takes on a different meaning. In the
waveguide bands, the left edge of
the screen represents a first LO fre-
CAT-WHISKER quency of 2 GHr, and the right
edge is where the first LO frequency
is 6 GHz. There is no out-of-band
Figure 10. Millirnetric mixer construction. blanking, for nothing is out of band.
What appears on the screen are the identify mode may be imperceptible. Connecting the Waveguide Mixer
responses due to ALL of the har- This is a fairly rare occurrence, but The maximum input power to the
monics and conversions of the LO, can happen, and that is why it is a waveguide mixer must be limited
as shown in Figure 5. Responses good idea for a user to also have a to + 15 d&m CW or 1 watt peak to
due to a 26 GHz signal will appear wavemeter to confirm the frequency avoid mixer diode damage.
in this range as werl as responses of the signal of interest.
due to a 100 GHz signal, regard- Mixer operating levels range from
less of WHICH band is selected. Frequency Measurements -20 dBm to 0 dBm for 1 dB com-
The bands are there simply ta afilow pression depending on the fre-
The 494 and 494P Spectrum Ana- quency range. These levels are
the center frequency and signal lyzers offer powerful contributions
identifier functions to work properly. easily obtained from most sources.
to microwave and millimeter A waveguide attenuator andlor a
Many of the generated responses waveguide band signal analysis.
are real, but the 4921492P signal directional coupler should be used
identifier feature is designed to find Frequency measurement accuracy to control the applied power level.
the one response which exhibits of stabilized sources is comparable Further, a pickup horn can be used
the properties which correlate with to microwave counters, with +5 in high radiated power setups.
the rest of the system design. Here kHz being typical at 40 GHz and Linear operation is best verified by
is an example of what this means: f 10 kHz typical at 300 GHz. changing the input power level to
The instrument is set to the 90-140 A new signal identification routine the mixer by a known amount and
GHz band, and a 94 GHz signal operates on any span below 50 observing the change in amplitude
applied to an F-band mixer. The MHzldivision and provides positive on the spectrum analyzer display.
492 is tuned to 94 GHz and then true signal identification even for
spanned down to 500 kHztdiv. The large local oscillator harmonic Mixer LO Cable Length
signal is then found, peaked and numbers.
Waveguide mixers for the 4921492P
identified and the analyzer set at,
Positive true signal identification is Spectrum Analyzers are supplied
perhaps, 50 MHzldiv. The analyzer
made possible by a large displayed with a 28 inch length of 50 ohm
is then switched to the 7 40-220 GHz
shift in false signals while a true coaxial cable as standard. This
band. What happens? The signal
signal remains virtually stationary length is selected to provide a mini-
does not move or change in ampli-
during alternate sweeps. mumlmaximum range of LO power
tude, but the band readout and
to the mixer of + 7 dBm to + 15
center frequency change. A slight
change in the "widtht' of the signal
may also be visible. This is because Operation at greater distances be-
band changes preserve LO fre- tween the spedrum analyzer and
quency, NOT center frequency. waveguide mixer are possible with
The signal displayed on the screen some degradation in sensitivity. For
is in response to a 94 GHz signal example, extending the 50 ohm
mixing with the 23rd harmonic of connecting cable from its normal
the first LO (N = 23) in the wave- 28 inches to six feet will attenuate
guide mixer. It will be exactly there the LO power by approximately 2
in all waveguide bands, but it will dB at 4 GHz (RG 223111) causing an
True signal identification at 90 GHz. increase in the mixer conversion
identify as "real" only when the
90-140 GHz band is selected so that loss of approximately I dB; addi-
the center frequency will be read tionally, further loss of 2 dB will
out accurately. Therefore, in this occur due to the IF signal attenua-
example, the signal will identify as tion. The overall effect will $e a 3 dB
false in the 140-220 GHz band. loss in sensitivity.
The signal identifier has its limits
with large values of "N." This fea-
ture requires care in interpretation
in the higher millimeter-wave bands.
A real signal and a false conversion
(for that band) may be adjacent har- False signal identification at 94 GHz.
monic numbers, and the oftset dif-
ference on alternate sweeps in the
Dynamic Range Mixer Diode Testing and Amplitude Measurement
(Assume a 1 dB compression Ceve! Replacement considerations
as maximum for full screen) The DC response of the diode can When operating the 492 Spectrum
The available on-screen dynamic besl be checked using a curve tracer Analyzer in the external mixer mode,
range will depend on the signal in- such as the Tektronix Model 576. notice that the reference level in the
put level available, the spectrum The response curve shown in Figure 18-26.5 GHz, 26.5-40 GHz, and 40-
analyzer resolution bandwidth in 12 indicates a good diode. Proper 60 GI42 bands is -30 dBm at the
use, and the residual FM of the curve tracer settings are shown on top of the screen. The input atten-
signal to be measured. This latter the curve tracer CRT. Caution: Do uator is not used, but the reference
factor will determine the narrowest not use an ohmmeter to test for level can be set to - 20 dBm in
resolution bandwidth that can be contact or polarity. these bands by using the MIN
used for a particular measurement. NOISE setting. In the higher milli-
meter wave bands, however, the
Typical dynamic range for the 492 conversion loss of each mixer is
and WM490F (90-140 GHz) wave- higher due to the higher N-number,
guide mixer is 45 dB in 1 MHz reso- and the reference level is adjusted
lution bandwidth and 75 dB in 1 kHz accordingly. This is done because
resolution bandwidth. as the conversion loss goes up, so
does the input saturation level (3
Coupling Hardware dB compression), The f 8-26.5 GHz
Considerations mixer will saturate with - 10 dBm
Greatest measurement accuracy and into the waveguide port, but the
repeatability is insured by smooth Figure 12. A properly working mixer diode. 60-90 GHz mixer will not, for ex-
mating surfaces and proper align- ample. The reference level in the
ment of the flange on the wave- The test for sensitivity requires a higher millimeter wave bands is
guide mixer and any external calibrated signal source at the adjusted to provide the maximum
waveguide component. operating frequency. on-screen dynamic range before the
Uniform pressure across the entire The mixer diode package is field re- mixer saturates. The reference level
mating surface is important for best placeable in the Tektronix WM490K at the top of the screen then repre-
results. (1 8-26.5 GHz) and the WM490A sents the RF level being applied to
(26.5-40 GHz) waveguide mixers. the mixer, and it should be remem-
Figure 7 1 is a photo of improper bered that this number is an aver-
The diode replacement and sensi-
alignment caused by uneven pres- age for each band.
tivity verification procedures are
sure on the flange securing screws.
detailed in the waveguide mixer Amplitude measurement accuracy is
Note: The captive flange screws are instruction manual. Tektronix Wave- limited by the same constraints that
equipped with pop-off heads to protect guide Mixers WM490U (40-60 GHz),
against over tightening
apply when using the spectrum
WM490V (50-75 GHz), WM490E analyzer coaxial input.
(60-90 GHz), WM490W (75-1I CI
The most important factors affecting
GHz), WM490F (90-140 GHz), amplitude accuracy in the waveguide
WM490D (110-170 GHz), and bands is the frequency response of
WM490G (140-220 GHz) should be the individual waveguide mixers and
returned to the factory for repair. the proper peaking of the mixer bias.
Caution: Do not attempt to disas-
semble the mixer body.
Figure r t . Improper alignment caused by
u n m pressurembflange
An air gap, as shown here will result
in increased system VSWR and de-
creased available power to the
mixer due to radiation loss and
IV. Specific Measurement 3. tmpatt (avalanche) Diode
The following are examples of Figure 37 is a CRT photo of an
some typical millimeterwave lmpatt Diode oscillator operating
sources as viewed on a 492 in the CW mode at 99.7 GHz. The
Spectrum Analyzer. lmpatt oscillator's low "Q" results in
a broad noise-like spectrum. Often
1. Gunn Oscillators the " Q is so low in tunable lmpatt
Figure 13 is a CRT photo of a oscillators that the output energy
Gunn oscillator operating in the CW distribution is much widerthan the
mode at approximately 60 GHz. Figure 14. Klystron at 142 GHz. Wide video maximum resolution bandwidth of
Note the well defined spectrum filter on. thespectrum Analyzer.
analyzer resolution banbwidth filter Power supply ripple on the RF
response, indicating residual FM source becomes clearly visible in
less than 100 kHz. Figure 15 by using the narrower
500 kHz/Div span setting.
3M.B1[;1W.Be lr 1 1 1 1
l- 3 1 1
mumlllliam~~~ r: l ! p k w d ~ ~ ~ - 7 f l
Figure 17. Klystron at 184 GHz. Available
on-screen dynamic range a
approxrrnately 34 dB with mixer
F~gui-e13. Gunn oscitlator at 60 GHr.
Note 100 kHz resolution can be The energy peak frequency appears
Figure 15. Typ~calpower supply noise on as only a lump In the background
used. a Klystron in a narrower span.
noise even after careful adjustment
The mixer power level is indicated of the mixer bias (peaking) control.
Figure 16 is a CRT photo of a
at -30 dBm and the on screen dy- Klystron oscillator operating in the
namic range is shown to be 50 dB The displayed amplitude will not
CW mode at 184.7 G Hz. The agree with a power meter due to
for the 100 kHz resolution band-
WM490F (90-140 GHz) wave- the broadband noise property of
guide mixer and 119-1729-00 the signal. A point to remember is
tapered waveguide transition was that the spectrum analyzer plots
used in making this measurement. energy per unit frequency while
Figure 14 IS a CRT photo of a
the power meter integrates all
Klystron oscillator operating in the
energy applied to the sensor head.
CW mode at approximately 142 GHz.
The available on-screen dynamic
range is shown to be 42 dB using
the 1 MHz resolution bandwidth fil-
ter. Residual FM is not measurable
at 5 MHzlDiv frequency span.
F~gure16. Typical lmpatt diode oscillator.
Accurate amplitude readings will
V. Waveguide Mixer Characteristics
1, Individual Mixer Electrical Characteristics
Frequency Amplitude Point
Response2 Accuracy3 (Saturation)
18-26.5 WM490K I K - 100 + 3dB
- +Ed B
- - 10 dBm t y p i c a l
26.5-40 WM490A A -95 - 3dB
= t - dB
-1-6 - 10 dBm typical
40-60 WM490U I 'U -9 5 +
- 3 dB +6 dB
- - 10 dBm t y p i c a l
50-75 WM490V V - 95 at 50 GHz + 3 dB - 10 dBm at 50 GHz
- 90 at 75 GHn tiplca14 - f 0 dSm at 75 GHz
60-90 WM490E E - 95 at 60 GHz 1 3 dB - lOdBm at60GHz
- 85 at 90 G H z typ1caJ4 - 5 dSm at 90 GHz
75-110 WM490W W - 90 at 75 GHz + 3 dB - dl dBm at 75 GHz
- 8 0 a t 1lOGHz typlca14 0 dBm at 110 GHz
90-140 WM490F F - 85 at 90 GHz + 3 dB -5 d Em at 90 GHz
- 75 at 140 GHz Gplca14 0 dBm at 140 GHz
110-170 WM490D D -80 at 110GHz + 3 dB OdBm at 710GHz
- J D at 170 GHz ty plca14 + 5 dBrn at 170 GHz
- typicat typical
140-220 WM490G G - 75 at t40 GHz + 3 dB 0 d8m at 140 GHz
-65at 220 GHz typca14 + i O dBm at220 GHr
220-325 7 19-1728-007 S - 65 at 220 GHz -t3 dB + 10 dBm at 220 GHz
-50 at 325 GHz typlcalG
1 Equivalent average noise level at 1 kHz bandwidth.
2. Maximum amplitude variat~on acrosseach waveguide mixer band (wlthpeaking control optimized at each frequency in response to a -30 dBm CW input signal to the marer)
3. Maxrmum reference level error with respect to the internal calibrator. Amplitude accuracy can be Improved 5 dB by measuring amplitude wth respect to a known external
(waveguide) reference srgnal
4 Over any 5 GHz bandwidth for m~llimeter wave rnlxers above 60 GHt.
5 Value est~matedat 325 GHz.
6. Saturation level exceeds bummt at 325 GHz.
7. Tapered waveguide transition allowing WM490G to cover this range
2. Performance Characteristics for all WM490 Series Waveguide Mixers
Maximum CW lnput Level: + 15dBm (32 mW).
Maximum Pulsed Input Level: 1 W peak with .OO1 maximum duty factor and l p s maximum pulse width.
LO Requirements: +7 d5m minimum; + 15 dBm maximum; + 10 dBm typical.
Bias Requirements: -2.0 ta +0.5 volts with respect to the mixer body, 20 rnArnaximum current.
3. Individual Mixer Mechanical Characteristics
Model No. /EIA) (JAN) Length Width1 Height' Weight
WM490K WR-42 UG-5951U 8.97 cm 2.22 crn 3.68 cm 180 g
(3.53 (375 in) (1 45 in) (6.502)
WR-19 UG-3831U-M 4.52 cm 1.84 cml 2.45 cm 80 g
(1781n) (.J251n1) (.980~ n ) (2.9 or)
WM490V WR-15 UG-3851U 4.31 crrI 0.89 cm m 40 CJ
11.70 in'I (-350 bn) n) (1 5 OZ)
WMd90E WR-12 7tU 4.31 crrI 0.89 cm rn 40 g
(1.70 ln) (350 rn) (.YOU ln) (1 5 DZ)
WM490W WR-10 UG-387JU-M 4.31 cm 0.89 cm 229 cm 40 g
(1.70 in) -(.350 rn) (.900 ~ n ) (1 502)
WM490F WR-08 'UG-3871U-M2 4.3f cm 0.89 cm
- (1.70 - in)~n (.350
WR-06 UG-3871U-M2 4.31 cm 0.89 cm
(1.70 ~ n ) (.350 tn)
WM490G WR-05 UG-3871U-M2 4.31 cm 0.89cm 2.29 cm I 40 g
(1 70 ~ n ) (-350 in) (.go0 in) (1 5 07)
220-325 1 19-1728-00 WR-05 74-003 - - - -
G-J Band flange WR-03 74-005
1 Physical dimensions exclude contribution due to the diameter of round waveguide flanges in U, V E. W F. 5 and G bands.
2. All mixers are equipped with standard UG-XXXIU type flanges as Inrl'ratpc Flange adaptors to standard MIL F 397?type flanges are provided in F, D, and G bands at no
3 All mixers include a protective flange cover, an LO:IF port protective shorting cap, and two captive flange screws for round flange mixers.
For further information, contact:
U.S.A., Asia, Australia, Central &
South America, Japan
P.O. Box 1700
Rravrrtan Oregon 97075
Fw additional Ilterature, or the
address and phone ~ ~ m bof theer
Tektronlx Sales Off~ce nearest you,
Oregon only R I M -252.1877
t IF ?fveen
T ~ E 4s
Telex: i n 512 18328
Tektronix Canada Inc.
P.O. Box 6500
Rarr~rOntarlo L4M 4V3
Tektronix sales and service
ofrces around the world:
Plt)nn~aAlqcr~a Angola, A r q ~ n l ~ n a
Australia, A ~ ~ s t r Bangladesh,
Belglurn, Bolivia, Bra/~lCanada,
Peoples Republic of China. Chile.
Loll ~ r n h ~Costa R~ca
Crcchosloval la Denmark, East
Africa, Ecuador, Eqypt, Federal
Republic of Germany, Finland,
France, Greece, Hong Kong,
Ht~ngnry Iceland India, Indonesia,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast,
Jarran, Jordan , Korea, Kuwait,
hl r Kcicco The Netherlands, New
7r; land Figeria, Norway Pakistan,
Panama, reru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, C,?iar. Republic of South
Afr~ca Romania, Saudi Arabia.
Singapore, Spaln, Sri Lanka,
Sudan. Sweden, Sw~tzerland,Syria,
Taiwan, Tha~land,T ~ r k r y Tunisia.
Un~ted Kingdom, Uruguay, USSR,
Vt>rirwuella Yugoslavia, Zarnb~a,
Spectral purity of 94 GHr
slgnal using Teklron~x
external wav6guide mixsrs
COY jyright ij 1983, Tektronix, Inc. All
~ reservec1. Printed ~nU S A
rig1 t s
Tel.ttronix products are covered by U.S.
am torelgn patents, Issued and
pend~ngInformation In thls publicatron
supersedes that In all previously
publ~shedmaterial. Specification and
price change priv~leqes reserved.
TEI(TRONIX, 7-EK, SCOPE i-MOBILE,
TEI_EQUIPMEF and 4T, k a re
-- registered Zrademarks. For further
infcrrrnation, co - ,onlx, Inc .
worththe - -.. - -
-- . . -
P.O. Box 5W,Heaverlon OR 9 0 3 7
Phone: (503)627 71 1 1 TWX 910-467-
8700;TtX: 15-1 754; Cable:
TFKTRONIX Subsidiaries and